Main Article Content
Metacognitive awareness in reading has been subject to much concern in various language levels and learning environments. This study aims to explore university students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies in English as a foreign language from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The study adopted a mixed method approach to explore the reading dispositions of 187 preparatory class students who were enrolled in Adana Science and Technology University. Students’ metacognitive awareness for reading was investigated under Global Reading Strategies, Problem-Solving Strategies, Support Strategies, and General Reading Tendencies sub-categories. Data obtained from the study revealed students’ various reading habits which provided insights from their perspectives and implications for the learning and teaching processes in the context of preparatory programs at university level.
Authors retain copyright to their work, licensing it under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License and grant the journal exclusive right of first publication with the work simultaneously and it allows others to copy and redistribute the work for non-commercial purposes, with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in IOJET and provided that no changes were made on the article.
Albazi, S. & Shukri, N. (2016). Evaluating the effect of metacognitive strategy training on reading comprehension of female students at KAU. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 5(3), 172-183. doi:10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.5n.3p.172
Alfaki, I.M. & Siddiek, A.G. (2013). The role of background knowledge in enhancing reading comprehension. World Journal of English Language, 3(4), 42-66. doi:10.5430/wjel.v3n4p42
Al Nazhari, H., & Delfi, S. & K, S. (2016). A study on English reading habits of students of English study program of Riau University. Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, 3(2), 1-8.
Bahrami,F. & Nosratzadeh, H. (2017). The effectiveness of note-taking on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 6(7), 308-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.6n.7p.308
Bojovic, M. (2010). Reading skills and reading comprehension in English for specific purposes. In paper presentation at the Annual meeting of the European Business Document Association, Celje, 23-24 September
Boulware‐Gooden, R., Carreker, S., Thornhill, A., & Joshi, R. (2007). Instruction of metacognitive strategies enhances reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of third‐grade students. The Reading Teacher, 61(1), 70-77
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Burt, M., Peyton, J.K. & Adams, R. (2003). Reading and adult English language learners: A review of research. Center for Applied Linguistics: United States of America
Chang, A.C.S. (2012). Improving reading rate activities for EFL students: Timed reading and repeated oral reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 24(1), 56-83.
Chen, K.T.C. & Chen, S.C.L. (2015). The use of EFL reading strategies among high school students in Taiwan. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 15(2), 156-166
Chio, K. U. (2009). Reading and second language acquisition. HKBU Papers in Applied Language Studies, 13, 153-174.
Collins, N. D. (1994). Metacognition and reading to learn. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED376427.pdf
Engin, A.O. & Seven, M.A. (2005). The effects of background knowledge, interest and topic familiarity on reading. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED497455.pdf on January, 2018
Estacio, M. J. M. (2013). Bilingual readers’ metacognitive strategies as predictors of reading comprehension. Philippine ESL Journal, 10, 179-199
Gilakjani, A.P. & Sabouri, N.B. (2016). A study of factors affecting EFL learners’ reading comprehension skill and the strategies for ımprovement. International Journal of English Linguistics, 6(5), 180-187. doi:10.5539/ijel.v6n5p180
González, Á. M. G. (2017). Reading comprehension in an English as a foreign language setting: Teaching strategies for sixth graders based on the interactive model of reading. Revista Folios, (45), 159-175
Gorjian, B., Hayati, A., & Sheykhiani, M. J. (2008). The role of gisting and contextual guessing reading strategies in learners’ performance in multiple-choice cloze tests of reading comprehension. Retrieved from http://www.ukm.my/solls09/Proceeding/PDF/Bahman,%20hayati%20et%20al.pdf on January, 2018
Griffith, P.L ve Ruan, J. (2005). What is metacognition and what should be its role in literacy instruction? (S. E. Israel, C. C. Block, K.L. Bauserman & K. K. Welsch). Metacognition in Literacy Learning (2005). 3-18. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C. & Blair, J. (2005). Fostering the development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic students. The Journal of Special Education, 39(2), 66-85
Haukås, Å. (2018). Metacognition in language learning and teaching: An overview. In Haukås, Å., Bjørke, C., & Dypedahl, M. (Eds.) Metacognition in language learning and teaching. Routledge: New York
Huang, H. C., Chern, C. L., & Lin, C. C. (2009). EFL learners’ use of online reading strategies and comprehension of texts: An exploratory study. Computers & Education, 52(1), 13-26
Ilona, H. (2009). The use of learner reading aloud in the English lesson: a look at the micro and macro levels of oral reading. Dissertation, II. Rákóczi Ferenc Kárpátaljai Magyar Főiskola: Ukraine
Ilustre, C. A. (2011). Beliefs about reading, metacognitive reading strategies and text comprehension among college students in a private university. Philippine ESL Journal, 7, 28-47.
Jose, G. R. & Raja, B.W.D. (2011). Teachers' role in fostering reading skill: Effective and successful reading. I-manager’s Journal on English Language Teaching, 1(4), 1-10.
Karbalaei, A. (2010). A comparison of the metacognitive reading strategies used by EFL and ESL readers. The Reading Matrix, 10(2), 165-180
Khaki, N. (2014). Improving reading comprehension in a foreign language: Strategic reader. The Reading Matrix, 14(2), 186-200
Khoshsima,H. & Tiyar, F.R. (2014). The effect of summarizing strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(3), 134-139. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20140203.11
King, N. (2004). Using templates in the thematic analysis of text. Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research, 2, 256-70.
Köse, N. (2016). Üniversite öğrencilerinin okuma sürecinde üstbilişsel stratejileri kullanma durumlari [Undergraduate students’ use of metacognitive strategies while reading]. (Master’s thesis). Bartın University,Turkey.
Kummin, S. & Rahman, S. (2010). The relationship between the use of metacognitive strategies and achievement in English. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 145-150
Lai, Y.L., Tung, Y.J. & Luo, S.Y. (2008). Theory of reading strategies and its application by EFL learners: reflections on two case studies. Retrieved from https://www.lhu.edu.tw/m/oaa/synthetic/publish/publish/26/11.%E8%B3%B4%E9%9B%85%E4%BF%90Theory%20of%20Reading%20Strategies%20and%20its%20Application%20by%20EFL%20Learners.pdf on January, 2018
Lopera Medina, S. (2014). Motivation conditions in a foreign language reading comprehension course offering both a web-based modality and a face-to-face modality. Profile Issues in Teachers Professional Development, 16(1), 89-104. doi: https://doi.org/10.15446/profile.v16n1.36939
Marashi, H., & Rahmati, P. (2017). The effect of teaching reading strategies on EFL learners’ reading anxiety. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2(2), 43-52. DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.2.43
Matsuoka,W. & Hirsh, D. (2010). Vocabulary learning through reading: Does an ELT course book provide good opportunities? Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(1), 56-70
Mehrpour, S., Sadighi, F. & Bagheri, Z. (2012). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to Iranian EFL pre-university students. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS) 4(1), 107-139. DOI: 10.22099/jtls.2012.331
Mehrdad, A. G., Ahghar, M. R., & Ahghar, M. (2012). The effect of teaching cognitive and metacognitive strategies on EFL students’ reading comprehension across proficiency levels. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3757-3763.
Meniado, J.C. (2016). Metacognitive reading strategies, motivation, and reading comprehension performance of Saudi EFL students. English Language Teaching, 9(3), 117-129. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n3p117
Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing student’s metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 249-259. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.52
Öztürk, E. (2012). Okuma stratejileri üstbilişsel farkındalık envanterinin Türkçe formunun geçerlilik ve güvenirlik çalışması [The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory]. İlköğretim Online [Elementary Education Online], 11(2), 292-305.
Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Rahimi, M., & Katal, M. (2013). The impact of metacognitive instruction on EFL learners’ listening comprehension and oral language proficiency. Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 32(2), 69-90
Rajab, A., Zakaria, W. Z. W., Rahman, H. A., Hosni, A. D., & Hassani, S. (2012). Reading anxiety among second language learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66, 362-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.279
Raoofi, S., Chan, S. H., Mukundan, J., & Rashid, S. M. (2013). Metacognition and second/foreign language learning. English Language Teaching, 7(1), 36. doi:10.5539/elt.v7n1p36
Rastegar, M., Kermani, E.M. & Khabir, M. (2017). The relationship between metacognitive reading strategies use and reading comprehension achievement of EFL learners. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 7, 65-74. DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2017.72006
Sadiku, L. M. (2015). The importance of four skills reading, speaking, writing, listening in a lesson hour. European Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 1(1), 29-31
Saengpakdeejit, R. & Intaraprasert, C. (2014). Reading strategies in foreign language academic reading: a qualitative investigation. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(12), 2599-2608. doi:10.4304/tpls.4.12.2599-2608
Salikin, H., Bin-Tahir, S.Z., Kusumaningputri, R. & Yuliandari, D.P. (2017). The Indonesian EFL learners’ motivation in reading. English Language Teaching, 10(5), 81-90. doi: 10.5539/elt.v10n5p81
Schoonen, R., Hulstijn, J., & Bossers, B. (1998). Metacognitive and language‐specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: An empirical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Language learning, 48(1), 71-106
Shan-Shan, K. (2013). Exploring the useful reading strategies among EFL college students in Taiwan. Chinese Studies, 2(4), 193-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/chnstd.2013.24031
Song, M. J. (1998). Teaching reading strategies in an ongoing EFL university reading classroom. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 8(1), 41-54.
Souhila, R. (2014). The use of reading strategies in improving reading comprehension. (Master of Thesis). University Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Algeria
Tabrizi, A.R.N. & Farokhmanesh, S. (2013). The effect of assisted reading on improving vocabulary knowledge of the Iranian EFL learners. Academic Research International, 4(6), 198-211
Tavakoli, H. (2014). The effectiveness of metacognitive strategy awareness in reading comprehension: The case of Iranian university EFL students. Reading, 14(2), 314-336
Weber, R. P. (1990). Basic content analysis, 2nd edition. United States of America: Sage Publications
Wurr, A.J. (2003) Reading in a second language: A reading problem or a language Problem? Journal of College Reading and Learning, 33(2), 157-169, DOI: 10.1080/10790195.2003.10850146
Yanyan, Z. (2010). Investigating the role of metacognitive knowledge in English writing. HKBU Papers in Applied Language Studies, 14, 25-46
Yue, C. L., Storm, B. C., Kornell, N., & Bjork, E. L. (2014). Highlighting and its relation to distributed study and students’ metacognitive beliefs. Educational Psychology Review, 27(1), 69-78. DOI 10.1007/s10648-014-9277-z
Zhang, L.J. &W, A. (2009). Chinese senior high school EFL students’ metacognitive awareness and reading-strategy use. Reading in a Foreign Language, 21(1), 37-59