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This research is an extensive meta-analysis investigating the link between mathematical literacy and mathematics achievement which are tested mainly in PISA exams. With this aim in mind, first, the studies related to the research objective between the years 2003-2021 were examined. In the second stage, eight studies which met the research criteria and 13 quantitative data categories that were common in those studies were determined. In the end of the process, the data set of this meta-analysis study consisted data obtained from 34146 participants in total. Based on the findings driven from the study, a heterogeneous data structure was observed; thus, the Random Effect model was used in the analyses and it was summoned that the link between mathematical literacy and mathematics achievement had a moderately significant effect on the effect size value (Cohen’s d value: 0.66). The analysis of the subgroups revealed that there was no noteworthy difference between the effect levels considering the independent variables including the publication type, sample group and publication year. Finally, the results of this meta-analysis revealed that there was a positive and moderate relationship among students’ mathematical literacy and mathematics achievement measured in PISA tests.
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