EFL TEACHERS’ CONCEPTUALIZATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES OF CRITICAL THINKING
The structure of societies has been changing with the rapid progress of science and technology in the 21st century. In this new structuring era, education is the only valid method to raise individuals who are able to make effective decisions, solve problems and take responsibility for learning and thinking critically. For this reason, learning to think rationally and critically are the keys to educational reforms in a number of educational settings worldwide. In the literature about teaching critical thinking, teacher behaviors are regarded as the most influential variables for the development of critical thinking among students. However, teachers can implement instruction geared towards critical thinking only when they develop a conception of critical thinking. This qualitative study, conducted with five EFL teachers at a high school, aims at investigating in-service EFL teachers’ conceptualizations of critical thinking as well as the strategies they use to infuse critical thinking into their EFL courses. The findings indicate that participating teachers have adequate knowledge about critical thinking and they incorporate certain techniques to cultivate critical thinking among language learners. We recommend that there should be more focus on exploring critical thinking conceptions and practice among EFL teachers working at different levels.
Alkın, S. (2012). Evaluation of elementary school teachers’ behaviors of supporting critical thinking (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ankara University Institute of Education Sciences, Ankara.
Alkın-Şahin, S., & Gözütok, D. (2013). Eleştirel düşünmeyi destekleyen öğretmen davranışları envanteri (EDDÖDE): Geliştirilmesi ve uygulanması. Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(2), 223-254.
Alkin-Şahin, S., Tunca, N., & Oğuz, A. (2015). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin öğrenen özerkliğini ve eleştirel düşünmeyi destekleme davranışları. Route Educational And Social Science Journal, 2(1), 161-178.
Asgharheidari, F., & Tahriri, A. (2015). A Survey of EFL teachers’ attitudes towards critical thinking instruction. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6(2), 388-396.
Bailin, S., Case, R., Coombs, J. R., & Daniels, L. B. (1999). Conceptualizing critical thinking. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(3), 285-302.
Beyer, B. K. (1995). Critical thinking. Fastback 385. Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, Bloomington, IN.
Bluestein, J. (2012). Industrial age vs. information age. Retrieved from http://janebluestein.com/2012/industrial-age-vs-information-age/
Brown, H.D. (2004) Some practical thoughts about students- sensitive critical pedagogy. The Language Teacher, 28(7), 23-27.
Chaffee, J. (1992). Teaching critical thinking across the curriculum. New Directions for Community Colleges, 1992, (77), 25-35.
Chamot, A. (1995). Creating a community of thinkers in the ESL/EFL classroom. TESOL Matters, 5(5), 1-16.
Choy, S. C., & Cheah, P. K. (2009). Teacher perceptions of critical thinking among students and its influence on higher education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2), 198-206.
Connor-Greene, P. A., & Greene, D. J. (2002). Science or snake oil? Teaching critical evaluation of “research” reports on the internet. Teaching of Psychology, 29(4),321-324.
Davidson, B. W., & Dunham, R. L. (1997). Assessing EFL student progress in critical thinking with the Ennis-Weir critical thinking essay test. JALT Journal, 19(1), 43-57.
Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. DC Heath and Company.
Duron, R., Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 160-166.
Ennis, R. H. (1985). A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational Leadership, 43(2), 44-48
Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED315423.pdf
Gelen, İ. (2002). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin sosyal bilgiler dersinde düşünme becerilerini kazandırma yeterliklerinin değerlendirilmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 10(10), 100-119.
Haynes, T., & Bailey, G. (2003). Are you and your basic business students asking the right questions? Business Education Forum, 57(3), 33-37.
Innabi, H. (2003). Aspects of critical thinking in classroom instruction of secondary school Mathematics teachers in Jordan. In Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project Proceedings of the International Conference, Czech Republic. Retrieved from http://dipmat.math.unipa.it/~grim/21_project/21_brno03_Innabi.pdf
Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (1986). Cooperative learning in the science classroom. Science and Children, 24, 31-32.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1994). Learning together and alone. Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kanik, F. (2010). An assessment of teachers’ conceptions of critical thinking and practices for critical thinking development at seventh grade level (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Kawulich, B. B. (2005). Participant observation as a data collection method. Forum Qualitative Social Research, 6(2), Art.43. Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/466/996
Kennedy, M., Fisher, M. B., & Ennis, R. H. (1991). Critical thinking: Literature review and needed research. In L. Idol & B.F. Jones (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive Implications for reform, (pp. 11-40). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.
Ketabi, S., Zabihi, R., & Ghadiri, M. (2013). Critical thinking across the ELT curriculum: A mixed methods approach to analyzing L2 teachers’ attitudes towards critical thinking instruction. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 2(3), 15-24
Koc-Erdamar, G., & Bengir- Alpan, G. (2017). Ortaöğretim öğretmenlerinin öğrenme stilleri ve eleştirel düşünme eğilimlerinin karşılaştırılması. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 37(1), 93-117.
Korkmaz, Ö. (2009). Teachers’ critical thinking level and dispositions. Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Journal of Education, 10(1), 1-13.
Lai, E. R. (2011). Critical thinking: A literature review. Pearson's Research Reports, 6, 40-41. Retrieved from http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/tmrs/CriticalThinkingReviewFINAL.pdf
Lauer, T. (2005). Teaching critical-thinking skills using course content material. Journal of College Science Teaching, 34(6), 34.
Mahmoodi-Shahrebabaki, M., & Yaghoubi-Notash, M. (2015). Teachers’ and learners’ attitudes towards critical thinking skills: A case study in the Iranian EFL context. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(2), 93-106.
McCollister, K., & Sayler, M. (2010). Lift the ceiling: Increase rigor with critical thinking skills. Gifted Child Today, 33(1), 41-47.
Ministry of National Education (2006). Support to basic education project “teacher training component” generic teacher competencies. Retrieved from http://otmg.meb.gov.tr/belgeler/otmg/Generic_Teacher_Competencies.pdf
Newmann, F. M. (1990). Higher order thinking in teaching social studies: A rationale for the assessment of classroom thoughtfulness. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 22(1), 41-56.
Oral Y. (2014). A case on teaching critical thinking and argument mapping in a teacher education context. In Shedletsky, L.J. & Beaudry, J.S. (Eds.), Cases on teaching critical thinking through visual representation strategies. (pp. 119-139). IGI Global, Information Science Reference, Hershey,
Patrick, J. J. (1986). Critical thinking in the social studies. ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Indiana University. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED272432.pdf
Rule, P. N. (2015). Dialogue and boundary learning. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Russ, S. W., & Fiorelli, J. A. (2010). Developmental approaches to creativity. In J.C. Kaufman, & R. J., Sternberg (Eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity, 233-250. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (1987). Defining critical thinking. The Critical Thinking Community: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Retrieved on May 8, 2017, from http://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutCT/define_critical_thinking.cfm
Seferoğlu, S. S., & Akbıyık, C. (2006). Eleştirel düşünme ve öğretimi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30(30), 193-200.
Smith, V. G., & Szymanski, A. (2013). Critical thinking: More than test scores. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 8(2), 16-25.
Stapleton, P. (2011). A survey of attitudes towards critical thinking among Hong Kong secondary school teachers: Implications for policy change. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6(1), 14-23.
Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 237-246.
Totten, S., Sills, T., Digby, A., & Russ, P. (1991). Collaborative learning: A guide to research. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 33(4), 231-243.
Tung, C. A., & Chang, S. Y. (2009). Developing critical thinking through literature reading. Feng Chia Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19, 287-317.
Yağcı, R. (2008). Sosyal bilgiler öğretiminde eleştirel düşünme: İlköğretim 5. sınıf Sosyal bilgiler öğretiminde, öğretmenlerin eleştirel düşünme becerilerini geliştirmek için uyguladıkları etkinliklerin değerlendirilmesi (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Çukurova Üniversitesi, Adana.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı Mirici
Editor in Chief
Near East University
Ataturk Faculty of Education
Near East Boulevard, 99138
Mersin 10 - Turkey