THE CURRENT POSITIONS OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL COURSE BOOKS IN TURKEY
In foreign language teaching, both cultural elements and communicating with others in a cultural environment are some of the indispensable requirements for language learners. In this sense, intercultural communication can be seen as a keystone for language teaching and learning. However, it is known that in order to improve intercultural communication; course books should be designed via some basic elements based on intercultural communication. In this study, for the aim of determining the current situation on the contexts of course books which have been related to intercultural communication, the course books developed by Ministry of National Education in Turkey were examined in terms of consisting activities or tasks related to intercultural communication. As for the grades of these course books; fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth grades were selected, since activities based on intercultural communication have been begun to be adapted to young learners’ course books after they are at least eleven because of their cognitive development. At the end of the study, the main themes of the cultural elements in these course books were discussed one by one as referring the related literature, and some suggestions on intercultural communication skills of young learners were introduced for researchers and educators.
Keywords: intercultural communication, young learners, course book
Keywords: intercultural communication, young learners, course book
Alptekin, C. (2002). Towards intercultural communicative competence in ELT. ELT Journal, 56(1), 57–64.
Baker, W. (2012). From cultural awareness to intercultural awareness: Culture in ELT. ELT Journal, 66(1), 62-70. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr017.
Bennett, M, J. (1998). Intercultural communication: A current perspective. In Milton J. Bennett (Ed.), Basic concepts of intercultural communication: Selected readings. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Byram, M. (2008). From foreign language education to education for intercultural citizenship. Essays and Reflections.
Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Byram, M. (1997). Culture studies in foreign language education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Chen, L. (Ed.). (2017). Intercultural communication (Vol. 9). Walter de Gruyter, GmbH & Co KG.
Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L. (1999). Cultural mirrors: Materials and methods in the EFL classroom. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 196-219). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Çakır, I. (2010). The frequency of culture-specific elements in the ELT course books in Turkey. Novitas- ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 4(2), 182-189. Retrieved from http://www.novitasroyal.org/vol_4_2/cakir.pdf in 12 March 2017.
Çalman, M. (2017). An evaluation of course book in the development of intercultural competence (Unpublished MA Thesis). İstanbul Aydın University, İstanbul.
Çelik, S., & Erbay, Ş. (2013). Cultural perspectives of Turkish ELT coursebooks: ‘Do standardized teaching texts incorporate intercultural features?’ Education and Science, 38 (167), 336-351.
Demirbaş, M. N. (2013). Investigating intercultural elements in English coursebooks. Kırşehir Eğitim Fakultesi Dergisi (KEFAD), 14(2), 291-304. Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir.
Erdoğan, S.B. (2015). Acquiring intercultural competence from course books: An analysis of learning tasks in the course book “The Big Picture” (Unpublished MA Thesis). Çağ University, Mersin.
Hamiloğlu, K., & Mendi, B. (2010). A content analysis related to the cross-cultural elements used in EFL course books. Sino-US English Teaching, 7(1), 16-24.
Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. London: Longman.
Jackson, J. (2014). Introducing language and intercultural communication. London: Routledge Publishing.
Jahan, R., & Roger, P. T. (2006). Global perspectives on the notion of ‘target culture’ associated with English as a foreign language. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 1, 1-17.
Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (2017). 3 Developing speaking for intercultural communication. Asian English Language Classrooms: Where Theory and Practice Meet, 30.
Korkmaz, I. (2009). A descriptive study on the concepts of culture and multiculturalism in English language coursebooks (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Trakya University, Edirne.
Liu, S., & Gallois, C. (2014). Integrating intercultural communication and cross-cultural psychology: Theoretical and pedagogical implications. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 12.
Martin, J. N. & Nakayama, T. K. (2007). Intercultural communication in contexts. 4th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill.
McKay, S. L. (2003). The cultural basis of teaching English as an international language. TESOL Matters, 13(4).
Meyer, M. (1991). Developing transcultural competence: Case studies of advanced foreign language learners. In D. Buttjes & M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures: Towards an intercultural theory of foreign language education (pp. 136-158). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Neundorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. London, England: Sage Publications.
Özil, Ş. (1999). The transfer of elements that belong to target culture in foreign language lessons in public schools. Retrieved from http://www.english.com/kultur-aktarimi.htm on April 18, 2017.
Pinter, A. (2011). Children learning second languages. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, Palgrave.
Richards, J.C., Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd Edition). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Risager, K. (1991). Cultural references in European textbooks: An evaluation of recent tendencies. In D. Buttjes & M. Byram (Eds.), Mediating languages and cultures: Towards an intercultural theory of foreign language education (pp. 181-192). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Rogers, E. M. & Steinfatt, T.M. (1999). Intercultural communication. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., & McDaniel, E. R. (2010). Communication between cultures. Canada: Wadsworth.
Sapir, E. (1921). Language. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Seliger, H. W., & Shohamy, E. (1990). Second language research methods. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Üstünel, E. & Öztürk, S. (2014). The impact of culturally enriched classroom young learners. ELT Research Journal, 3 (4), 222-224.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı Mirici
Editor in Chief
Near East University
Ataturk Faculty of Education
Near East Boulevard, 99138
Mersin 10 - Turkey