CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED
The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005); therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002) and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005) categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT) with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005) “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI)” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic) and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994).
Keywords: conflict resolution styles, Turkish and American cultures
Alagozlu, N., & Makihara, M. (2015). Conflict resolution strategies in Turkish and American speech communities: A school setting. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 2(3), 177-197.
Fiske, A. P. (2002). Using individualism and collectivism to compare cultures - A critique of the validity and measurement of the constructs: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002) Psychological Bulletin Vol. 128, No. 1, 78–88 0033-2909/02/$5.00 DOI: 10.1037//0033-2909.128.1.78.
Gudykunst, W. B. (1998). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gudykunst, W., & Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Culture and interpersonal communication. London: Sage.
Hall, E. (1976). Beyond culture. Garden City, NJ: Anchor Press/Doubleday.
Hammer, M.R. (2005). The intercultural conflict style inventory: A conceptual framework and measure of intercultural conflict resolution approaches. Intercultural Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 675-695.
Hammer, M. R. (2009). Solving problems and resolving conflict using the intercultural conflict style model and inventory. In M. A. Moodian (Ed.), Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence (pp. 219-232). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (Revised and Expanded 3rd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G. National Culture Retrieved on 26 May 2017 at https://geerthofstede.com/national-culture.html.
Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education. Language Learning, 16, 1-20.
Kilmann, R. H., & Thomas, K. W. (1977). Developing a forced -choice measure of conflict-handling behaviour: The “Mode” instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37, 309-325.
Leung, S. (2002). Conflict talk: A discourse analytical perspective, Columbia University Academic Commons, http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8FB52F22016)
Liu, M. (2016). Verbal communication styles and culture. Communication and Culture Online Publication Date: Nov 2016 DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.162
Ting-Toomey, S. (1994). Managing intercultural conflicts effectively. In L. Samovar & R. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural communication: A reader (pp. 360-372). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. The Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory: A conceptual framework and measure of intercultural conflict resolution approaches (PDF Download Available).
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223818026_The_Intercultural_Conflict_Style_Inventory_A_conceptual_framework_and_measure_of_intercultural_conflict_resolution_approaches[accessed Jun 22, 2017].
Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating across cultures. New York: Guilford Press.
Ting-Toomey, S., Yee-Jung, K. K., Shapiro, R. B., Garcia, W., Wright, R. J., & Oetzel, J. G. (2000). Ethnic/cultural identity salience and conflict styles in four US ethnic groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(1), 47-82.
Triandis, H. C., & Gelfland, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 118-128.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı Mirici
Editor in Chief
Faculty of Education
Department of English Language Teaching
06800, Beytepe Ankara, Turkey