This study explored primary teacher’s philosophical orientation towards teaching, which was defined as a teacher’s set of interrelated beliefs that they develop and utilize when teaching. Teachers are expected to conflate epistemological beliefs, instructional training and societal expectations of effective instruction to construct a single perceptual identity and cause learning, but since 2009-2019,pupils in Eastern region of Uganda have persistently continued to perform poorly in Primary Leaving examination hence a need to examine the epistemological and ontological position of teachers. To accomplish this task, a qualitative research approach was used, interview and non-participant observation were the data collection instruments. A key finding of this work was that teachers do not practice the methods of teaching they learnt during their teacher education programs. The study suggests infusion of Karl Popper`s Falsification principle, Michael Gibbons Mode 2 Knowledge Production and Epistemological codes in teacher education programs. The nature of subjects, learning and teaching must also be well aligned to each other in order to form a good base for teaching.