Main Article Content

Somaye Ranjbar
Ehya Amalsaleh
Zahra Rastegar


One of the most controversial questions raised by classroom second language acquisition (SLA) researchers is whether and how to include grammar in second language (L2) classrooms. This study tried to investigate how the form-focused instruction affects lower-intermediate EFL Iranian learners’ grammar learning. Based on an experimental data collection and analysis, the design of the study was a pre-test and post-test which dealt with 45 female participants at the pre-intermediate level. The pre-test was administered at the beginning of the course; then, the researchers observed two groups-- experimental (FFI) and control groups (traditional method). The researchers used an observation checklist which contained some items to investigate if the teacher used the related items in classes. Afterwards, the researchers provided the frequency of observation of teachers’ operations which showed differences between the FFI and the traditional instruction. After observing the teaching sessions, we administered the same test as a post-test to both groups, the experimental and the control group. The data were analyzed through two types of t-tests, independent t-test and paired t-test.Key Words: form-focused Instruction (FFI); traditional Grammar Instruction.

Article Details

Author Biography

Ehya Amalsaleh, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Ehya Amalsaleh (PhD) is an associate professor of TEFL at English Department, Paramedical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.  She has already published a number of  academic articles as well as ESP textbooks for Iranian  students . Her research interest lies in analyzing texts within Critical DiscourseAnalysis as well as methods of teaching writing.


Baleghizadeh.S.(2010).Focus on form in an EFl: communicative classroom. Novitas-ROYA (Research
on Youth and Language), 2010, 4 (1), 119-128.
Basturkmen, H., Ellis, R. , Loewen, S. (2001). Learner Uptake in Communicative ESL
Lessons. Language Learning,51(2), 281-318.
DeKeyser, R. (1998). Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second
language grammar. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in second language
acquisition (pp. 42-63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Diller, K. C. (1978). The language teaching controversy. New York: Newbury House.
Doughty, C. (1991). Second language instruction does make a difference. Studies in Second
Language Acquisition, 13(4), 431-469.
Doughty, C., & Varela, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. William (Eds.),
Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114-138).New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams
(Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197–261). New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Doughty, C. (2001). Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In Robinson, P. (Ed), Cognition and
second language instruction (pp. 206- 257), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, R. (2001) ‘Introduction: Investigating Form-Focused Instruction’, Language Learning,
51(1), 1-46.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University
Ellis, R. (2006). Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. TESOL
Quarterly, 40, 83-107.
Fotos, S., & Nassaji, H. (Eds.). (2007). Form-focused instruction and teacher education. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Howatt, A. (1984). A history of English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Krashen, S., & Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom.
Oxford: Pergamon.
Laufer, B., & Girsai, N. (2008). Form-focused instruction in second language vocabulary learning. Applied Linguistics, 29 (4), 694-716.
Long, M. H. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology in
K. de Bot, R. Ginsberg, & C. Kramsch (Eds.). Foreign language research in cross-
cultural perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Long, M., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice. In C. Doughty, & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 15-63).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Long, M. (2000). Focus on form in task-based language teaching. In R. Lambert & E.
Shohamy (Eds.), Language policy and pedagogy: Essays in honor of A. Ronald Walton (pp. 179- 192). Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V.
Muranoi, H. (2000). Focus on form through interaction enhancement: Integrating formal instruction
into a communicative task in EFL classrooms. Language Learning, 50,617-673.
Norris, J., & Ortega, L. (2000). Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative
meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50 (3), 417-528.
Pawlak, M. (2006). The place of form-focused instruction in the foreign language classroom.
Poznan, Poland: Kalisz–Poznań.
Richards, C.J., Gallo, B.P., & Renandya, A.V. (2002). Exploring teachers' beliefs and the processes of
change. PAC Journal, 1(1), 41-58.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching.
Saslow. J.,& Ascher.A. (2007). Summit: English for Today's World1A. ISBN US
Edition: 978-013-110705-2,7.
Saeidi, M. (2009). Multiple intelligence-based focuses on form and Iranian EFL learners' accurate use
of grammar. The Journal of Applied Linguistics, 117-136.
Schmidt, R. (1994). Deconstructing consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics. AILA Review, 11, 11-26.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.). Cognition and second Language instruction (pp.
3-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sharwood Smith, M. (1993). Input enhancement in instructed SLA: Theoretical bases.Studies in
Second Language Acquisition, 15,165–79.
Song, S. (2009). Recasts, grammatical morphemes and L2 learning: A longitudinal case study of
Korean L2 learners. India: Proquest, Umi Dissertation Publishing.
Spada, N., & dos Santos Lima, M. (2008). Integrated and isolated FFI: Views from ESL and
EFL teachers and learners. Modern Language Journal, 85 (2), 244–258.
Van Patten, B. (1990). Attending to form and content in the input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 287-301.
Wilkins, D. 1976. Notional syllabuses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.