Main Article Content

Nihan Bursalı
Huseyin Oz


Metacognition, an awareness of one’s own cognitive processes in learning, is a crucial component of self-regulatory behavior that facilitates successful language learning. Therefore, the current study sought to find out the role of different types of goals in participants’ metacognitive awareness. A total of 118 university students enrolled in an English Language Teaching program at a major state university voluntarily participated in the study. Data were gathered using Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and Goals Inventory. Findings of descriptive statistics revealed that 48.3% of the participants had high, 28% had moderate, and 23.7% had low metacognitive awareness. Besides, significant correlation was found between mastery goals and metacognitive awareness, supporting the findings of the previous studies. These results revealed the importance of goal setting in metacognition and can be useful for practitioners to include goal orientation to the curriculum by emphasizing the necessity of learner engagement, agency, and self-regulation for successful language learning process.

Article Details

Author Biographies

Nihan Bursalı, Ufuk University

ORCID Below:

Huseyin Oz, Hacettepe University

See my ORCID below:


Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivational processes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 478-487.
Anderson, N. J. (2012). Metacognition: Awareness of language learning. In S. Mercer, S. Ryan & M. Williams (Eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory and practice (pp. 169-187). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Butler, R. (1993). Effects of task-and ego-achievement goals on information seeking during task engagement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 18-31.
Coutinho, S. (2007). The relationship between goals, metacognition, and academic success. Educate, 7 (1), 39-47.
Dunning, D., Johnson, K., Ehrlinger, J., & Kruger, J. (2003). Why people fail to recognize their own incompetence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12 (3), 83-87.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. S. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of psychological inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911.
Ford, J. K., Smith, E. M., Weissbein, D.A., Gully, S. M., & Salas, E. (1998). Relationships of goal orientation, metacognitive activity, and practice strategies with learning outcomes and transfer. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 218-233.
Gul, F., & Shehzad, S. (2012). Relationship between metacognition, goal orientation and academic achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1864-1868.
Kharazi, S. A. N., Ezhehei, J., Ghazi Tabatabaei, M., & Kareshki, H. (2008). An investigation of the relationships between achievement goals, self-efficacy and metacognitive strategies: Testing a causal model. Journal of Psychology and Education, 38, 69-87.
Öz, H. (2014). The relationship between metacognitive awareness and academic achievement among English as a Foreign Language teachers. In J. Huang & A. C. Fernandes (Eds.) Non-native language teaching and learning: Putting the puzzle together (pp.139-167). New York, NY: Untested Ideas Research Center.
Öz, H. (2015). Investigating pre-service English teachers’ metacognitive awareness. In H. Öz (Ed.), Language and communication research around the globe: Exploring untested ideas (pp. 35-58). New York, NY: Untested Ideas Research Center.
Pintrich, P. R., & DeGroot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.
Roebken, H. (2007). The influence of goal orientation on student satisfaction, academic engagement and achievement. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 5(3), 679-704.
Roedel, T. D., Schraw, G., & Plake, B. S. (1994) Validation of a measure of learning and performance goal orientation. Educational and Psychological Measurement 54(4), 1013-1021.
Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(4), 460-475.
Schmidt, A. M., & Ford, K. (2003). Learning within a learner control training environment: The interactive effects of goal orientation and metacognitive instruction on learning outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 56, 405-429.
Williams, M., Mercer, S., & Ryan, S. (2015). Exploring psychology in language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zafarmand, A., Ghanizadeh, A., & Akbari, O. (2014). A structural equation modeling of EFL learners’ goal orientation, metacognitive awareness, and self-efficacy. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5(6), 112-124.