FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING ANXIETY AMONG PRE -SERVICE TEACHERS DURING TEACHING PRACTICUM
Research on anxiety in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) commonly focuses on language learning and its related matrices whereas foreign language teaching anxiety (FLTA) has still remained an area of research to be addressed and explored thoroughly. Accordingly, this study was carried out to fill the gap in the literature since when the literature was reviewed, it was found that the few definitions on FLTA are inadequate in covering many other aspects of the concept itself. Thus, the aim of this study was firstly to define a newly emerging concept named FLTA. Secondly, the study aimed to explore pre-service EFL teachers’ anxiety provoking factors while they were practising teaching English to young learners at real classroom settings during teaching practicum. The main aim of this study was to make a novel classification on anxiety provoking factors, namely the sources of FLTA. The study was carried out with 25 pre-service EFL teachers studying in the ELT department at Balikesir University. A background questionnaire, interviews, reflections and essay papers were used to collect qualitative data. The results indicated that the pre-service EFL teachers experienced anxiety in teaching English to young learners at real classroom settings particularly related to cognitive, affective and socio-cultural factors.
Alpert, R., & Haber, R. N. (1960). Anxiety in academic achievement situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 10, 207-215.
Anandari, C. L. (2015). Indonesian EFL Students’ Anxiety in Speech Production: Possible Causes and Remedy, TEFLIN Journal: A publication on the teaching and learning of English, 26(1), 1-16.
Aslrasouli, M., & Vahid, M. S. P. (2014). An investigation of teaching anxiety among novice and experienced Iranian EFL teachers across gender. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 304-313.
Aydin, S. (2016). A qualitative research on foreign language teaching anxiety. The Qualitative Report, 21(4), 629-642. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol21/iss4/2
Baltacı, H.S. Foreign language teaching anxiety of language teachers pre-service vs. in-service, 1st International Black Sea Conference on Language and Language Education, September 22-23, 2017, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, 291-296.
Boyce, C., & Neale, P. (2006). Conducting in-depth interviews: A guide for designing and conducting in-depth interviews for evaluation input. Pathfinder International Tool Series, Monitoring and Evaluation-2. See for more information. http://compositionawebb.pbworks.com/f/conducting+in+depth+interviews.pdf.
Chastain, K. (1975) Affective and ability factors in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 28, 55-68.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 2nd ed. California: Sage Publications.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. & Barkhuizen, G. (2016). Analysing learner language. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Fish, T. A., & Fraser, I. H. (2001). Exposing the iceberg of teaching anxiety: a survey of faculty at three New Brunswick Universities. Electronic Journal of the American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 4.
Fletcher, C. (1997) A study of state, trait, and test anxiety, and their relationship to assessment center performance. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 12(5), 205- 214.
Freud, S. (1924). Collected papers. (Vol. 1). London: Hogarth Press.
Freud, S. (1936). The problem of anxiety. New York: W.W. Norton.
Gardner, L. E., & Leak, G. K. (1994). Characteristics and correlates of teaching anxiety among college psychology teachers. Teaching of Psychology, 21(1), 28-32.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitude and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Hancock, D. R. (2001) Effects of test anxiety and evaluative threat on students’ achievement and motivation. The Journal of Educational Research, 94, 284-290.
Horwitz, E. (1996). Even Teachers Get the Blues: Recognizing Alleviating Language Teachers’ Feeling of Foreign Language Anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 365-372.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.
İpek, H. (2007). Foreign language teaching anxiety. Eskişehir: T.C. Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları, No: 1730.
İpek, H. (2016). A qualitative study on foreign language teaching anxiety. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 4(3), 92-105. DOI :10.14689/issn.2148-2624.1.4c3s5m
Kim, S. Y., & Kim, J. H. (2004). When the learner becomes a teacher: Foreign language teaching anxiety as an occupational hazard. English Teaching, 59(1), 165-186.
Lim, H. Y. (2009). Culture, attributions, and language anxiety. Applied Language Learning, 19, 29-52.
Liu, M., & Jackson, J. (2008). An exploration of Chinese EFL learners’ unwillingness to communicate and foreign language anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 92(1), 71-86.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second‐language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification. Language learning, 39(2), 251-275.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language learning, 44(2), 283-305.
Merç, A. (2004). Reflections of pre-service EFL teachers throughout their teaching practicum. What has been good? What has gone wrong? What has changed? (Unpublished master’s thesis). Anadolu University, Eskişehir.
Merç, A. (2011). Sources of foreign language student teacher anxiety: A qualitative inquiry. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 2(4), 80-94.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Na, Z. (2007). A study of high school students’ English learning anxiety. The Asian EFL Journal, 9(3), 22-34.
Numrich, C. (1996). On becoming a language teacher: Insights from diary studies. Tesol Quarterly, 30(1), 131-151.
Oxford, R. L. (1999). Anxiety and the language learner: new insights. In Jane Arnold (ed.) Affect in language learning (pp. 58-67). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Öztürk, G. (2016). Foreign Language Teaching Anxiety among Non-native Teachers of English: A Sample from Turkey. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 6(3), 54-70.
Pollard, A., Anderson, J., Maddock, M., Swaffield, S., Warin, J., & Warwick, P. (2008). Reflective teaching (3rd ed.). London: Continuum.
Richards, J. C. (1998). Beyond training (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. C., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2005). Professional development for language teachers: Strategies for teacher learning. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28(1), 129-142.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Stroud, C., & Wee, L. (2006). Anxiety and identity in the language classroom. RELC Journal, 37(3), 299-307.
Thompson, A. S., & Lee, J. (2013). Anxiety and EFL: Does multilingualism matter? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(6), 730-749.
Trang, T. T. T., Baldauf, R. B., & Moni, K. (2013). Foreign language anxiety: Understanding its status and insiders' awareness and attitudes. Tesol Quarterly, 47(2), 216-243.
Trylong, V.L. (1987). Aptitude, attitudes, and anxiety: A study of their relationships to achievement in the foreign language classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Tum, D. O. (2012). Feelings of language anxiety amongst non-native student teachers. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 2055-2059. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.948
Tum, D. O. (2015). Foreign language anxiety's forgotten study: The case of the anxious preservice teacher. Tesol Quarterly, 49(4), 627-658.
Yin, R. K. (2010). Qualitative research from start to finish. New York: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Yoon, T. (2012). Teaching English through English: Exploring anxiety in non-native pre-service ESL teachers. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(6), 1099-1107. doi:10.4304/tpls.2.6.1099-1107
Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does the anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 75, 426-439.
Young, D. J. (1992). Language anxiety from the foreign language specialist’s perspective: Interviews with Krashen, Omaggio Hadley, Terrell, and Rardin. Foreign Language Annals, 25, 157–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ an.1992.25. issue-2
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı Mirici
Editor in Chief
Near East University
Ataturk Faculty of Education
Near East Boulevard, 99138
Mersin 10 - Turkey