BEYOND A GAME: PEER EDUCATION TO SEPARATE FOOTBALL AND VIOLENCE
Football, one of the sports with roots in history, has been associated with violence and tragedy in various countries. Several studies have tried to understand the nature and structure of hooliganism and its common cross-national characteristics, severity, and causes. Although existing literature suggests a variety of strategies to prevent violence in football, it is widely accepted that there must be grassroots movements and self-awareness, besides these measures,to reduce cases of aggressionin football. This study, whichwas awardedthe Fair Play prize in 2014 by the Turkish Olympic Committee, focuses on training fans using the peer education methodology. The young fans of Beşiktaş Football Club implemented a peer education program and conducted an online survey to assess itseffectiveness and understand the participants’ perceptions and reflections regarding the causes of and methods to preventfootball hooliganism.The results suggest that the training program was effective and that it should be disseminated to reach all other associations to achieve results that are more positive.
Andersson, T. &Radman, A. (2002). Football fans in Scandinavia: 1900–97. In: A. Brown
(Ed.), Fanatics, power, identity & fandom infootball (pp.150).London and New York.
Ayan, S. (2006). Violence and fanaticism. Journal of Cumhuriyet University Faculty of
Economics and Administrative Sciences,7(2), 191- 209.
Brimson, D. (2016). Peer pressure not legislation is the solution to football hooliganism.
Retrieved 19 December 2016 from
Comeron, M. (2002).The prevention of violence in sport.Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.Retrieved 23January 2017 from
Dunning, E.(2001). Sport matters: Sociological studies of sport, violence andcivilization. London and New York.
Eur-Lex Access to European Union Law. (2007) Council decision concerning security in connection with football matches with an international dimension. Retrieved 26 January 2017 from
Federation Internationale de Football Association (n.d.)Retrieved 13 February 2017from
Harvard School of Public Health.(n.d.) Peer education systems–overview. Retrieved 21 December 2016from
Health Education Authority. (1993). Peers in partnership: HIV/AIDS education with young people in the community. London.
Mil, H.İ.&Şanlı, S. (2015).Violence in sports and impact of media: Analysis of a match.Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 14(55),231-247.
Online Survey System.(n.d.). Retrieved 25 March 2017 from
Rookwood, J. & Pearson, G. (2010).The hooligan: Positive fan attitudes to football “hooliganism”.International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 47(2), 149–164.
Shiner, M. (1999).Defining peer education.Journal of Adolescence, 22,555-566.
Spaaij, R. (2005) Theprevention of football hooliganism: A transnational perspective. In: Aquesolo, J. (ed.) Actasdel X CongresoInternacional de HistoriadelDeporte (pp. 1-10). Seville: CESH.
Spaaij, R. (2007).Cultures and football hooliganism.A study of three Western European countries.Retrieved 27 February 2017 from
Turner, G. & Shepherd, J. (1999).A method in search of a theory: Peer education and health promotion.Health education research, 14(2),235-247.
Union of European Football Associations.(n.d.) Retrieved 6 January 2017 fromhttp://www.uefa.com
Weisz, A. & Black, B.M. (2010).Peer education and leadership in dating violence prevention: Strengths and challenges. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 19, 641–660.ly
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı Mirici
Editor in Chief
Near East University
Ataturk Faculty of Education
Near East Boulevard, 99138
Mersin 10 - Turkey