TEACHING EFL VOCABULARY TO YOUNG DIGITAL NATIVES: A STUDY WITH TURKISH 5TH GRADE EFL LEARNERS
AbstractInspired by the recent studies on the topics of teaching vocabulary to young learners through digital games (Aghlara & Tamjid, 2011; Cellat, 2008; Chou, 2014; Jang, 2014; Yip & Kwan, 2006), the current study aimed to examine the effect of online vocabulary games on teaching new words to young learners in EFL. For this aim, 46 Turkish 5th grade EFL students in a state school were assigned into control and experimental groups. Both groups studied 22 words in 6 instructional sessions conducted in 6 subsequent weeks in the second semester of 2016-2017 academic year. Throughout this period, the data was collected via recognition- production tests and semi-structured interviews. The results of the recognition and production tests showed that experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of vocabulary gains. The results of the semi-structured interviews also supported the quantitative results indicating that online vocabulary games increased motivation of the students. Additionally, it was observed that young learners were amused by digital games and were willing to learn more via them.
Aghlara, L., & Tamjid, N. H. (2011). The effect of digital games on Iranian children’s vocabulary retention in foreign language acquisition. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 552-560. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.275
Ashraf, H., Motlagh, F. G., & Salami, M. (2014). The impact of online games on learning English vocabulary by Iranian (low-intermediate) EFL learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 286-291. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.418
Billieux, J., Deleuze, J., Griffiths, M. D., & Kuss, D. J. (2015). Internet gaming addiction: The case of massively multiplayer online role-playing games. In N. El-Guebaly, G. Carrà, & M. Galanter (Eds), Textbook of addiction treatment: International perspectives (pp. 1515-1525). New York: Springer.
Caner, M., Subaşı, G., & Kara, S. (2010). Teachers’ beliefs on foreign language teaching practices in early phases of primary education: A case study. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 1(1), 62-76.
Cellat, S. (2008). Computer assisted vocabulary learning: A study with Turkish 4th grade EFL learners (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from YÖK National Thesis Centre. (Accession No. 229243)
Chien, C. W. (2015). Analysis the effectiveness of three online vocabulary flashcard websites on L2 learners’ level of lexical knowledge. English Language Teaching, 8(5), 111-121.
Chou, M. H. (2014). Assessing English vocabulary and enhancing young English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ motivation through games, songs, and stories. Education 3-13, 42(3), 284-297.
Dudeney, G., & Hockly, N. (2012). ICT in ELT: How did we get here and where are we going?. ELT Journal, 66(4), 533-542.
Ellis, G. (2013). ‘Young learners’: Clarifying our terms. ELT Journal, 68(1), 75-78.
Ersöz, A. (2007). Teaching English to young learners. Ankara, Turkey: EDM Publishing.
Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. (2006). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New Jersey: Aldine Transaction, A Division of Transaction Publishers.
Gürsoy, E., & Arıkan, A. (2012). Teaching English to young learners: An activity-based guide for prospective teachers. Ankara, Turkey: Egiten Kitap Publishing.
Gürsoy, E., Korkmaz, S. Ç., & Damar, A. E. (2013). Foreign language teaching within 4+4+4 education system in Turkey: Language teachers’ voice. Egitim Arastirmalari-Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 53/A, 59-74.
Henry, A. (2013). Digital games and ELT: Bridging the authenticity gap. In E. Ushioda (Ed.), International perspectives on motivation (pp. 133-155). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hong, J. C., Cheng, C. L., Hwang, M. Y., Lee, C. K., & Chang, H. Y. (2009). Assessing the educational values of digital games. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(5), 423-437.
Hussain, Z., Griffiths, M. D., & Baguley, T. (2012). Online gaming addiction: Classification, prediction and associated risk factors. Addiction Research & Theory, 20(5), 359-371.
Jang, H. J. (2014). The effects of semantic clustering on EFL young learners' vocabulary learning. English Teaching, 69(3), 25-47.
Johnstone, R. (2002). Addressing ‘the age factor’: Some implications for languages policy. Strasburg, France: Council of Europe.
Karatepe, Ç. (2012). Learning theories. In E. Gürsoy & A. Arıkan (Eds.), Teaching English to young learners: An activity-based guide for prospective teachers (pp. 1-19). Ankara, Turkey: Egiten Kitap Publishing.
Kim, E. J., Namkoong, K., Ku, T., & Kim, S. J. (2008). The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits. European Psychiatry, 23, 212-218
Klein, K. (2005). Teaching young learners. English Teaching Forum, 43(1), 12-17.
Korkmaz, Ş. Ç. (2012). Games. In E. Gürsoy & A. Arıkan (Eds.), Teaching English to young learners: An activity-based guide for prospective teachers (pp. 305-326). Ankara, Turkey: Egiten Kitap Publishing.
Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Kuss, D. J., Louws, J., & Wiers, R. W. (2012). Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(9), 480-485.
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Internet gaming addiction: A systematic review of empirical research. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10(2), 278-296.
Morin, R., & Goebel, J. (2001). Basic vocabulary instruction: Teaching strategies or teaching words? Foreign Language Annals, 34(1), 8-17.
Nam, J. (2010). Linking research and practice: Effective strategies for teaching vocabulary in the ESL classroom. TESL Canada Journal/Revue TESL Du Canada, 28(1), 127-135.
Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Newbury House.
Nemati, A. (2013). Vocabulary learning strategies: A short way to long term retention. Linguistics and Literature Studies, 1(1), 8-14.
Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research & Evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Peterson, M. (2010) Massively multiplayer online role-playing games as arenas for second language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(5), 429-439.
Peterson, M. (2012). Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis. ReCALL, 24(3), 361-380.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants Part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6.
Ranalli, J. (2008). Learning English with the Sims: Exploiting authentic computer simulation games for L2 learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(5), 441-455.
Richard, J. C. & Schmidt, R. (Eds.) (2002). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics (3rd ed.). London: Longman.
Sahrir, M. S., & Alias, N. A. (2011). A study on Malaysian language learners’ perception towards learning Arabic via online games. GEMA Online™ Journal of Language Studies, 11(3), 129-145.
Sahrir, M. S., & Yusri, G. (2012). Online vocabulary games for teaching and learning Arabic. GEMA Online™ Journal of Language Studies, 12(3), 961-977.
Shipton, I., Mackenzie, A. S., & Shipton, J. (2006). The child as a learner 1. Retrieved from https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/child-a-learner-1
Shipton, I., Mackenzie, A. S., & Shipton, J. (2006). The child as a learner 2. Retrieved from https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/child-a-learner-2
Scott, W. A., & Ytreberg, L. H. (1990). Teaching English to children. New York: Longman.
Setyaningsih, A. (2007). Teaching English to young learners through songs. Journal of English and Education, 1(2), 75-85.
Smith, G. G., Li, M., Drobisz, J., Park, H., Kim, D., & Smith, D. S. (2013). Play games or study? Computer games in eBooks to learn English vocabulary. Computers & Education, 69, 274-286. doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.07.015
Sylvén, L. K., & Sundqvist, P. (2012). Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners. ReCALL, 24(3), 302-321.
Tomasello, M. (2014). The new psychology of language: Cognitive and functional approaches to language structure (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Turgut, Y., & İrgin, P. (2009). Young learners’ language learning via computer games. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 760-764. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.135
Wood, J. (2001). Can software support children's vocabulary development? Language Learning & Technology, 5(1), 166-201.
Yip, F. W. M., & Kwan, A. C. M. (2006). Online vocabulary games as a tool for teaching and learning English vocabulary. Educational Media International, 43(3), 233-249.
Yoshii, M. (2006). L1 and L2 glosses: Their effects on incidental vocabulary learning. Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 85-101.