International Online Journal of Education and Teaching http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET <p><img src="/public/site/images/esoykan/homepageImage_en_USa3.png" width="364" height="171"></p> <p><strong>Period:</strong> 4 Issue / Year</p> <p><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;</strong>2148-225X</p> <h3>About the Journal&nbsp; &nbsp;</h3> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;aims to set up a highly qualified academic platform for both experienced and novice education professionals, researchers, librarians in academic, corporate, and government work settings; and those involved in education and teaching practices.</p> <p>The purpose of the&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;is to foster critical debate about education and teaching. The&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;seeks both to develop new theoretical insights into the education and teaching,&nbsp;and new understandings of the extent and nature of contemporary educational practices in diverse settings. It underlines the significance of discovering and reflecting the interplay of local, regional, national and global contexts and dynamics in shaping educational and teaching strategies and policies.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET&nbsp;</em>is concerned with education in its broadest sense, including formal, informal and non-formal modes, as well as cognitive and metacognitive skills development.&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;is primarily interested in studies that look at the relationship between education and teaching in different contexts.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET&nbsp;</em>welcomes papers from all prospective authors and especially from scholars who study education and teaching both theoretically and in practice.&nbsp;</p> en-US Copyright by Informascope . Material published and so copyrighted may not be published elsewhere without the written permission of IOJET. No manuscript will be considered which has already been published or is being considered by another journal. hakkimirici@gmail.com (Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı Mirici) info@iojet.org (iojet Support) Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 HONG KONG TEACHERS’ ENGLISH ORAL INPUT IN KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/450 <p>Oral input has long been recognised as a key factor influencing second language acquisition in early childhood. Children rely heavily on oral input to learn new words and develop phonological awareness of a language. However, in the context of English teaching in Hong Kong kindergartens — which feature diversity in language use in the classroom — little work has been done on the oral input given to children. This study examined the English oral input of teachers in Hong Kong kindergarten classrooms. It investigated the amount and features of teachers’ English oral input, and how the input affected the conditions for English language learning. Classroom observations were conducted monthly for three months with one native speaking (NS) and two non-native speaking (NNS) kindergarten teachers together with a total of 44 Chinese-speaking children. The research used the Oral Input Quality Observation Scheme developed for systematically collecting oral input and output data from the teachers and children respectively. The results show that the learning activities did not seem to be hindered by the different pronunciations of the NS and NNS teachers. However, the NS teacher tended to use a broader variety of vocabulary and a richer amount of English than the NNS teachers. Both the NS and NNS teachers demonstrated limitations in pedagogical skills in teaching the children English pronunciation. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the context of English teaching in Hong Kong kindergartens.</p> Sara Lai-Reeve, Billy Tak-Ming Wong, Kam Cheong Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/450 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:33:13 +0300 THE ROLE OF BRAIN DOMINANCE IN THE PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES USED BY IRANIAN ELT TEACHERS http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/393 This study aimed to investigate the role of Iranian teachers' brain dominance in the pedagogical strategies they employ and reveal in which way brain dominance as a cognitive factor can influence the way teachers perform in their language classrooms. To this end, data were gathered from 74 ELT teachers in higher education institutes in Shiraz, Iran who were selected to partake in the study through availability sampling. The participants were asked to fill in two questionnaires, the first one determined their brain dominance, and the second one examined the pedagogical strategies they used in their teaching strategies. Analysis of data gathered via descriptive as well as inferential statistics revealed that teachers' brain dominance did not have any effects on their use of teaching strategies. Based on the results, it can be claimed that teachers can employ any strategy type they find more useful in their language classes regardless of their brain dominance, as a cognitive style. Samad Mirza Suzani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/393 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:32:50 +0300 EXAMINATION OF OCCUPATIONAL RESILIENCE BELIEFS OF IN-SERVICE AND PRE-SERVICE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION TEACHERS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT VARIABLES http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/396 <p>Occupational resilience contributes teachers to adapt difficult conditions of teaching, to deal with obstacles and to maintain professional commitment. The purpose of this research is to compare the occupational resilience beliefs of early childhood education teachers and pre-service teachers. In accordance with this purpose, whether there is a significant difference between the occupational resilience beliefs of teachers and pre-service teachers, whether there is a significant difference in the occupational resilience beliefs of teachers according to their seniority and whether there is a significant difference in the occupational resilience beliefs of pre-service teachers according to type of university, the relational screening model has been used. The data is collected from 275 participants via Occupational Resilience Beliefs Scale for Teacher Candidates. As the results of statistical analysis, there is a significant difference in the occupational resilience beliefs of early childhood education teachers and pre-service early childhood education teachers in favor of early childhood education teachers. On the other hand, there is no significant difference in the occupational resilience beliefs of teachers according to their seniority. There is no significant difference in the occupational resilience beliefs of pre-service teachers according to the type of university. The findings are discussed in the framework of the relevant literature.<strong></strong></p> Ozlem Donmez, Meltem Karasulu, Seray Asantogrul, Rengin Zembat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/396 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:33:37 +0300 READING UNDER INVESTIGATION: DISPOSITIONS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN AN EFL SETTING http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/401 <p class="GvdeMetni1">Metacognitive awareness in reading has been subject to much concern in various language levels and learning environments. This study aims to explore university students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies in English as a foreign language from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The study adopted a mixed method approach to explore the reading dispositions of 187 preparatory class students who were enrolled in Adana Science and Technology University. Students’ metacognitive awareness for reading was investigated under Global Reading Strategies, Problem-Solving Strategies, Support Strategies, and General Reading Tendencies sub-categories. Data obtained from the study revealed students’ various reading habits which provided insights from their perspectives and implications for the learning and teaching processes in the context of preparatory programs at university level.  </p> Gokce Dislen Daggol, Duygu Ispinar Akcayoglu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/401 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:33:52 +0300 BALANCING RESOURCES AND VALUE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION COURSE REVIEWS: A CASE STUDY AT A MID-SIZED PUBLIC UNIVERSITY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/402 This study examines the development and implementation of a distance education course review process at a mid-sized public university. Four primary goals were set for the process:  to provide substantive feedback, to cultivate engagement between DE faculty and staff, to provide support to course developers and reviewers, and to establish an effective balance between faculty resources and the value of feedback generated through the process. Feedback was collected through a survey of participating developers and reviewers (n=52). Responses broadly supported achievement of the four primary goals. Those who participated in multiple roles gave stronger ratings on all survey questions than those who participated through a single role. Based on qualitative and quantitative feedback, strengths, weaknesses, and possible adjustments to the process are discussed. William Swann, M. Kathleen Cripe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/402 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:34:29 +0300 EDUCATION OF THE GIRL-CHILD IN NIGERIA FOR A JUST, PEACEFUL, HARMONIOUS SOCIETY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/425 <p>International instruments, declarations and local laws set the pace for appropriate human development, peace and harmony.10.5 million children in Nigeria are out of school; approximately 60 percent are girls (UNICEF, 2014). They are dropouts due to various factors: socio-cultural, economic, governance etc. vulnerable to forms of abuses, harms- female genital mutilation, insurgency effects and other negative influences which deny her rights and dignity are discussed. Assessments of education statistics at basic education level over (1990-2010) revealed imbalances in enrolments and gender disparity in favour of males and the education statistics from 2014 to 2016, revealed increases in enrolments and a gender parity index ranging from 0.80 to 1.0. Various government efforts and interventions by international development partners to bridge the gender gap and heal the harms are enumerated. Benefits of educating the girl child which are critical for the development of a just, peaceful, harmonious society for sustainable development are highlighted. Recommendations included: ensuring the rights of the girl child, (development, participation protection and survival), sustaining gender equity, government`s strong political will, more funding for education, international aid, empowering  girls/women with various life  skills, ensuring girls retention and completion in school, effective implementation of the National policy on gender in basic education  etc. </p> Benedicta Agusiobo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/425 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:34:42 +0300 VISIBLE LANGUAGE-COVERT POLICY: AN INVESTIGATION OF LANGUAGE POLICY DOCUMENTS AT EMI UNIVERSITIES IN TURKEY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/436 <p>As universities attempt to change their medium of instruction from the local languages to English and become more international by recruiting international students and teaching staff, their academic English language policies and practices appear to be more prominent. The use of English in higher education as the medium of instruction and the increasing cultural and linguistic mixture on campuses make EMI universities a fruitful ground to explore issues of language policy and practice. This paper explores the academic English language policies and practices of three EMI universities in Turkey. Applying a combination of qualitative content analysis and negative analysis, I seek to find out institutions’ overall orientation to English in their policy documents. The analysis shows that English is overtly pronounced as the official language of the institutions, yet the kind of English required remains considerably covert. However, the analysis of policy mechanisms further indicate that each university orients to a particular standard (native) English by implication as the appropriate kind of academic English. Additionally, such normative orientations seem to be guided by several dynamically intertwined ideologies. These results suggest that language-wise, universities’ academic language policies are in need of immediate and drastic revision.</p> Ali Karakas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/436 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:34:54 +0300 ACADEMICIANS' VIEWS ON DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION IN EDUCATION http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/441 <p>It is seen that changing information and communication technologies affect and even transform things in almost every area of the digital age that we have in conjunction with Industry 4.0 and globalization. These rapid changes and transformations in the world affect education both as a structure and as learning environments. One of these values has been the digital transformation. As the increasing use of technology in every day and learning environments, now most of the students are born to a digital world. In this context, this study was designed with a phenomenological research design as the qualitative approach in order to determine academics' views on digital transformation in education in terms of program and management processes. The working group consists of 20 faculty members working at 9 different universities in the Department of Educational Sciences. The data were collected with a semi-structured interview form. Results reveal that in the digital transformation process, managers must first create a vision to generate and managed accordingly for an effective learning environment. According to another result, it is possible that school shareholders are involved in this transformation process by letting them access the place and time by supporting content and infrastructure which is technologically appropriate. It is recommended that educational administrators and program specialists be ready for this transformation and have the qualities to manage this transformation.</p><div><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div><p> </p></div></div> Aydin Balyer, Omer Oz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/441 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:35:06 +0300 PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION: UNDERSTANDING PARENTS' PERCEPTIONS http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/447 Parental involvement is one of the most significant factors influencing students’ educational development. The present study explores Turkish parents’ perceptions of involvement in their children’s learning English in relation to their demographic characteristics. The participants of the present research include the parents of the students studying at the 1st to 4th grades of a private primary school in Ankara. This research was designed as a sequential explanatory study in which a 29-item survey was used along with a semi-structured interview. Findings suggest that parents have a positive attitude towards parental involvement and they are generally aware of the academic and psychological aspects of education. Therefore, they have a good relation with the teachers and they get involved in their children’s English language education directly and indirectly. Findings also revealed that demographic characteristics such as gender, age, occupation or level of education, generally, make no significant difference on parents’ perceptions about parental involvement. Gulce Kalayci, Huseyin Oz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/447 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:35:20 +0300 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING ON SCIENCE EDUCATION: A META-ANALYSIS SEARCH http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/452 <p>The present study aims to demonstrate, by means of a meta-analysis, the effectiveness of Project-Based Learning in the context of academic performance and various study characteristics. For this purpose, the relevant literature was reviewed to identify studies using Project-Based Learning in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and science. Following the literature review, the study characteristics and the criteria for their inclusion were determined. A total of 48 studies were included and, by means of the analyses conducted, the general effect size of Project-Based Learning in science education was found to be 1.063. This is quite a large effect size by Cohen’s criteria and it shows that Project-Based Learning is 86% more effective in science education compared to traditional learning approaches. Project-Based Learning was found to have a great effect size in different subjects (physics, chemistry, biology, and science), at different levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary), and with samples of various sizes (small, medium, and large). Project-Based Learning can thus be deemed more effective compared to traditional learning approaches.       </p> Nuri Balemen, Melike Ozer Keskin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/452 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:35:35 +0300 THE EFFECT OF SONGS ON PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/454 <p class="Normal1">In language classes songs have been used for many years. Many studies have pointed out that students can take advantage of music in classes in terms of learning grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. This study aims to explore the role of using songs on students’ motivation in primary level. The dominant/sequential design of the mixed methods approach was applied to the study. The quantitative data were elicited with a quasi-experimental design and qualitative data were collected by means of observations. The data were collected from the students of a state elementary school in a rural area of Denizli province during the winter semester of 2017-2018 education year. The participants were 25 5<sup>th</sup> graders; 17 girls and 8 boys.  Descriptive analyses were used in order to form the frequencies and percentages of the quantitative data. For the observation data, a matrix was created in Microsoft Word to calculate the average scores of three dimensions of motivation, participation, interest and attention. The perceptions of the observers were elicited and analyzed by means of content analysis. The results of the research showed that the students were more motivated and eager to participate into the activities when songs were used in their classes. The perceptions of the students and teachers were similar.</p><p class="Normal1"><em>Keywords:</em> Motivation, songs, young learners, interest, learning English</p> Sabriye Sener, Didem Erkan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/454 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:35:51 +0300 PRONUNCIATION PROBLEMS OF TURKISH EFL LEARNERS IN NORTHERN CYPRUS http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/457 <p>This study investigated the pronunciation problems of Turkish EFL learners in state schools in Girne, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Thirty high-school students participated in the study. The researcher collected data through a pronunciation test and school visitations. The purpose of the pronunciation test was to elicit pronunciation problems of Turkish EFL learners. The performance of thirty participants was video-recorded. In order to increase the validity of the results, two native raters listened to the recordings and rated the problematic sounds as correct or incorrect. After data collection, Microsoft Excel was used to calculate the coded and analyzed data, and SPSS (Version 20) was used to find the percentages and the frequencies of the data. The findings indicate that Turkish EFL learners have serious problems in pronouncing certain English consonants (i.e., /θ/, /ð/, /w/, /v/, /ŋ/) and some English vowels and diphthongs (i.e., /ı/, /ʊ/,<strong> /</strong>ᴐ:/, /ƏƱ/, /aƱ/). Mother tongue interference seems to be the main cause of these errors since Turkish lacks most of these sounds. Moreover, lack of sufficient exposure to target language and inadequacy in training can also be potential causes of these errors as most of the participants have never heard or practiced the correct pronunciation of these sounds. Therefore, they tend to produce incorrect sounds, instead. Similarly, English spelling may have played an important role in students’ mispronunciation. The results of the study are thought to be useful for teachers who teach English to Turkish EFL learners in Northern Cyprus.<strong></strong></p> Halil Ercan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/457 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:36:06 +0300 RESILIENCE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING: A STUDY ON PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/461 <p class="Ejal-Abstract-Text">Investigating pre-service teachers’ language learning experiences is essential as they have an impact on their learning during their departmental studies and their future teaching practices. Given the fact that there is a growing call for the development of resilience in teacher education programs, this qualitative study aims at exploring what resources pre-service English language teachers have relied on to overcome challenges and obstacles to learning English as a foreign language. To achieve this aim, data were obtained from 23 pre-service teachers enrolled in English Language Teaching program at a university in Istanbul, Turkey in the form of a reflective writing activity. To triangulate data, a focus group interview was carried out with five of the participating pre-service teachers. Data were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach (Braun &amp; Clarke, 2006). Findings revealed that pre-service teachers dealt with a variety of obstacles in their English language learning histories such as ineffective methodologies used by teachers, anxiety caused by examinations, obstacles in language skills especially speaking, and language barriers while staying in English-speaking countries. The pre-service teachers mentioned that they demonstrated agency in the process of overcoming these obstacles and their resilience included both personal protective factors and social/environmental protective factors.</p><p class="GvdeMetni1"><em>Keywords:</em> resilience, positive psychology, teacher education, foreign language learning</p> Hande Serdar Tuluce ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/461 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:36:30 +0300 ERROR LOGS FOR BETTER ENGLISH http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/464 <p class="GvdeMetni1">The objective of this study is to investigate the common errors of L2 learners in a Turkish university setting where they have to learn L2 and pass a B1 level exam in order to be faculty students. The study aims at identifying what types of errors the learners do, what the possible determining factors at the background are and how they can overcome these. The problem areas are analysed within 17 English paragraphs of 17 Turkish students. As Corder suggested (1974) sample collection, error identification, error description, error explanation, and error evaluation are the steps followed in this study. So, first, the errors were identified; then, the errors were explained and analysed. The analysis of the writings showed that errors commonly occurred in areas of lexis, grammar, syntax and were the results of the differences between L1 and L2. As a solution, error logs were used in order to have the learners be aware of the origins of the problem areas and after the error correction, drafting was done to reflect the improvements in their writings by trying to overcome the problem of L1 interference.</p><em>Keywords:</em> error, error correction, feedback, error log, L1 interference Begum Kut ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/464 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:36:44 +0300 IN-SERVICE EFL TEACHERS’ REFLECTION AS A PATHWAY TO DEVELOP PROFESSIONALISM http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/467 In-service teachers are required to understand how to be professionals since they have responsibility to provide a quality education. One of the strategies to develop professionally is by conducting reflective practice or reflection. Reflection-in-action, one type of reflection, can be used by teachers to reflect on the pedagogical content knowledge while on the job. This research was aimed at exploring teachers’ practices reflective practice. More specifically, it focused on identifying the aspects of pedagogical content knowledge, known as PCK,  as reflected by English teachers during teaching and learning process. To investigate the issue, there were two two in-service English teachers from one of state owned school in Indonesia involved as the respondents of the study. The data in this qualitative case stusy were acquired through observation, documentation, and interview. It was found that reflecting on pedagogical content knowledge had a valuable contribution to in-service English teachers’development. It led them to the awareness of their strengths and weaknesses in handling and guiding their students. Instead, it also helped them be more  well-prepared for the next teaching. Tosriadi Tosriadi, Abdul Asib, Sri Marmanto, Umu Arifatul Azizah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/467 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:36:58 +0300 VIEWS OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION STUDENTS AT TERTIARY LEVEL ABOUT THE METHODS AND TECHNIQUES USED IN ATATÜRK’S PRINCIPLES AND REVOLUTION COURSE http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/482 <p>This study examines elementary education department students’ view about the methods and techniques generally preferred by their instructors in teaching The History of Atatürk’s Principles and Revolution I and II courses. For the purpose of the study, the questionnaire (r=.90), investigating the methodological and technical skills of instructors, developed by Çelikkaya and Kuş (2009) has been administered to 1st (n=105) and 4th (n=123) year elementary education students in the faculty of education at a public university. Descriptive statistics has been used to analyze the data about the views of the elementary education students who participated in the study about The History of Atatürk’s Principles and Revolution I and II courses in terms of use of methods and techniques used by the instructors.  Relying on the findings obtained at the end of the study, the participants reported generally negative views about their instructors’ methods and techniques in The History of Atatürk’s Principles and Revolution course, however, they draw attention to the points such as use of technological aids, students’ presentations, feedback, opportunity projects, opportunity for students asking and answering questions both by the instructor and their peers, forming group works, and letting discussions in the classroom about the topics under discussions. </p> Gulay Saricoban ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/482 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:37:12 +0300 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SCHOOLOGY TO TEACH WRITING VIEWED FROM STUDENTS’ CREATIVITY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/484 <p class="GvdeMetni1">This is a quasi-experimental research with a 2x2 factorial design that was conducted at even semester of tenth grade students of SMA Batik 2 Surakarta in the academic year of 2017/2018. The sample of this research was two classes namely experimental class taught using Schoology (S1) and control class taught using Picture Series (P2). Each class consists of 26 students, so the total sample is 52. The sample was obtained by implementing cluster random sampling technique. Each class was divided into two groups each of which consisted of 13 high creative students (H) and 13 low creative students (L). The data of this research were obtained from writing test to find out students’ writing scores. Then, the data were analyzed by using 2x2 Multifactor Analysis of Variance ANOVA  and Tukey test. The results show that the mean scores of HS1 is 85, HP2 is 73.62, LS1 is 72.31, and LP2 is 72.69. As a result, the research findings reveal that: (1) Schoology is more effective than Picture Series to teach writing; (2) High creative students have better writing skill than low creative students; and (3) There is an interaction between teaching media and students’ creativity in teaching writing.</p><p class="GvdeMetni1"><em>Keywords:</em> Schoology, Picture Series, Writing skill, Creativity, Experimental Study</p> Ummy Khoirunisya' Masyhudianti, Ngadiso Sutomo, Suparno Suparno ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/484 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:37:25 +0300 ASSESSING AND ENHANCING PRE-SERVICE PHYSICS TEACHERS’ PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (PCK) THROUGH REFLECTIVE CORES CONSTRUCTION http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/486 <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Content Representations (CoRes) construction, and reflective peer discussions on pre-service physics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Participants consisted of 16 third year pre-service physics teachers; 12 females and 4 males. The results show that the majority of participants made positive improvements to their initial PCK. Participants became more knowledgeable about students’ misconceptions, developed improved orientations to teaching, and suggested more responsive instructional strategies and assessment strategies along with more elaborate justifications. Discussion focuses on implications of these results for professional development of pre-service science teachers and research on PCK.</p> Mehmet Aydeniz, Deniz Gurcay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/486 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:37:39 +0300 DEVELOPING A MODEL FOR TEACHING THE PROBLEMATIC VOCABULARY ITEMS BY COMPUTER http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/487 <p class="GvdeMetni1">This study proposes a new design of computer-based vocabulary teaching learning and teaching activity so as to enhance opportunities for learners to expand their vocabulary knowledge. There are a lot of opportunities on the internet to compensate the hampering effect of learning vocabulary items and to improve their vocabulary by means pronunciation, intonation, meaning of target language vocabulary items by using internet facilities with almost no expenses. In this research, a new vocabulary teaching model, called <strong>Morphological Pairing Model,</strong>is proposed by using electronic dictionaries, audacity programs, and text to speech labs. Some vocabulary items are really difficult to learn due to the shift of stress phonemes, internal vowel changes, intonation, and meaning variation. In this model, problem-causing words are diagnosed and then collected via diagnostic tests. Then, words are grouped in terms of morphological pairs regarding the psycholinguistic difficulties they inherit. Later, the pronunciation and transcription of them are put together in isolation for repetition by downloading them from the electronic dictionaries. Finally, some sentences for each vocabulary item are written down, and while the speaking robots from the <strong>Text to Speech Labs</strong>read them out, they are downloaded by the <strong>Audacity programs. </strong>After this, the foreign language teacher designs different types of exercises and practices them in native speaker-like pronunciation and intonation in form of a PowerPoint, which is handed over to the students at the end of the lesson after the classroom practices are over for further practice on their own.                                                                                                                                       </p> Mehmet Demirezen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/487 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:37:51 +0300 EMPOWERING THE USE OF MOBILE-BASED VOCABULARY NOTEBOOKS http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/492 <p class="GvdeMetni1">The high demand on the mobile devices like smart phones and Ipads in daily life has given a rise to mobile learning trends in foreign language learning. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in vocabulary achievement level of students keeping mobile-based and paper-based vocabulary notebooks in English language learning. The study was designed through mixed method where a pre-post test control group quasi-experimental study was conducted. Data were collected through a vocabulary achievement test used as pre and post tests. The results indicated mobile-based vocabulary notebooks have positive effects on students’ vocabulary achievement.</p> Ozlem Zengin, Meral Aksu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/492 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:38:02 +0300 UTILIZING THE EPOSTL FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION PROCESS: NEEDS AND GAINS http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/516 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p>The review of literature clarifies that teacher education starting from the faculty as a pre-service process needs refreshment in making revisions of its boundaries, competences and classifications as providing gains for the whole system. Thus, this study provides a sample for other subject fields of teacher education since it aims to show how a new generation tool named as European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL) can be used to define the needs of prospective English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers and foster the teacher education system with its gains. The sample of the study consists of 4<sup>th</sup> grade prospective EFL teachers studying at Hacettepe University, Department of ELT (N=38). For data collection, the adapted 5 point likert-type scale version of EPOSTL was applied to the participants. In the data analysis process in addition to the calculations of frequencies and percentages, some parametric statistics were used. The findings of the study reveal that EPOSTL can be a new tool for describing the competences of both prospective and in-service EFL teachers which could be inspiring for other teacher education programs as well.  </p><p><em>Keywords:</em> Teacher education, EFL teacher competences, EPOSTL</p> Ayfer Su Bergil, Arif Saricoban ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/516 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:38:15 +0300 HOW ESP PEDAGOGY IN INTERNATIONAL VIRTUAL COLLABORATION CONTRIBUTES TO THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE LEARNING PROCESS: A CASE STUDY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/502 <p>Given the rapid advances in information communication technology (ICT) and the ever-increasing likelihood that students will be collaborating on cross-cultural teams in their future careers, creating opportunities to engage in collaborative writing projects across borders and then observing the dynamics of international virtual online collaboration have high pedagogical value, though studies are scarce. This research examines the learning process that occurred when engineering and computer science students from France and Germany were connected with business and technical writing students from the US to work on co-authored documents. The researchers were specifically interested in how students addressed the situational constraints of the collaboration and how those constraints influenced students’ choices of communication and collaboration tools. Two separate projects were assigned and each employed reading, writing, “talking,” and critical thinking components. Analysis of post-project survey data and the correlation of students’ ICT choices revealed students had to continually renegotiate their communication and collaboration. Allowing students to make rhetorical choices resulted in cultural learning through hands-on experience with these constraint variables: English language proficiency, cultural differences, project complexity, time difference, and technology. The results from this study will be useful to ESP pedagogy in projecting how to prepare students for international virtual collaboration.</p> Wendy Winn, Katalin Beck ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/502 Thu, 04 Oct 2018 10:38:30 +0300