International Online Journal of Education and Teaching <p><img src="/public/site/images/esoykan/homepageImage_en_USa3.png" width="364" height="171"></p> <p><strong>Period:</strong> 4 Issue / Year</p> <p><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;</strong>2148-225X</p> <h3>About the Journal&nbsp; &nbsp;</h3> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;aims to set up a highly qualified international academic platform for both experienced and novice education professionals, researchers, librarians in academic, corporate, and government work settings; and those involved in education and teaching practices all over the world.</p> <p>The purpose of the&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;is to foster critical debate about education and teaching globally. The&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;seeks both to develop new theoretical insights into the education and teaching,&nbsp;and new understandings of the extent and nature of contemporary educational practices in diverse settings. It underlines the significance of discovering and reflecting the interplay of local, regional, national and global contexts and dynamics in shaping educational and teaching strategies and policies internationally.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET&nbsp;</em>is concerned with education in its broadest sense, including formal, informal and non-formal modes, as well as cognitive and metacognitive skills development.&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;is primarily interested in studies that look at the relationship between education and teaching in different contexts globally.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET&nbsp;</em>welcomes papers from all prospective authors and especially from scholars who study education and teaching both theoretically and in practice all over the world.&nbsp;</p> Informascope Information Technologies, Trade, Publishing LTD. CO. en-US International Online Journal of Education and Teaching 2148-225X Copyright by Informascope . Material published and so copyrighted may not be published elsewhere without the written permission of IOJET. No manuscript will be considered which has already been published or is being considered by another journal. Taking a closer look at blended learning activities in a paragraph writing course <p class="GvdeMetni1"><span lang="EN-US">Blended learning has been talked about a lot in contemporary higher education and seen as the perfect solution for improving the quality of learning. In spite of the widespread support of acceptance this approach has gained, it is admitted that there is no single standard formula for a successful blended learning program, and thus more cases of blended learning need to be reported. This paper reports a study of the implementation of blended learning in a paragraph writing course with the aims of taking a closer look at the blended learning activities carried out in the course and revealing the responses of the students about the activities. This case study involved one lecturer and six student participants from the paragraph writing class, which were selected purposively. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and document analysis. The findings showed that there were five main learning activities in face-to-face instructions and five activities online. These activities were intended to maximize the use of classroom time for active and collaborative learning activities, supplemented with online activities to reinforce learning undertaken in the classroom. In general, student responses to blended learning activities in the paragraph writing course were positive.</span></p> Anggri Muhtia Suparno Suparno Sumardi Sumardi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 2 16 E-learning uptake among academicians and students in Tanzanian universities <p>The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent of current e-learning uptake in Tanzanian universities. The quantitative approach involving survey design was adopted in the collection of data. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 400 respondents, with a rate of return 85.5%. The average reliability of variables 0.949 was determined using Cronbach's Alpha. Fuzzy Logic model and t-test were adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the average extent of current e-learning uptake among students and academicians were less than half of threshold amounting to 50% (i.e. level of awareness was 16%, availability was 20.6%, accessibility was 17%, attitude was 15% as variables used). There was no statistically significant difference in e-learning uptake among students and academicians as the value of p &gt; 0.05. The findings of this study established a base ground and guidelines to inform the e-learning stakeholders and policymakers to find and establish suitable policy as well as mechanism to adopt and encourage sustainable use of e-learning systems for life-long teaching and learning. The originality of this study is based on the addition of new variables and methodologies employed as empirical evidence based on the extent of e-learning uptake in Tanzanian universities.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></strong><em>Keyword:</em> &nbsp;ICTs, e-learning uptake, fuzzy logic model, students, academicians</p> Simeo Boniphace Kisanjara Titus M. Tossy Alfred Said Sife Simon Samwel Msanjila ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 18 35 Naturalistic Observation of Engagement and Disengagement within Professional Development in Education <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The purpose of this naturalistic observation study was to observe, in a natural setting, the actions of attendees at educational professional development conferences. In doing so, it was hoped that numerous behaviors could be observed that would indicate a level or extent of engagement or disengagement within presentations. It was found that the observed sample was often communicating with others or looking around the room while the presentation was unfolding. Fiddling with objects was common since arriving at a presentation takes time to settle. Overall, the audience was mostly distracted and not engaged which would logically diminish the utility of the professional development.</p> Thomas G. Ryan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 37 54 The effect of inquiry-based science activities on prospective science teachers’ scientific process skills <p>Inquiry skill is the most important factor in the development of the scientific processes of prospective science teachers. The objective of this study is to research the effect of using inquiry-based activities on the development of scientific process skills of prospective science teachers. The research group of the study consists of students studying in their third year of science teaching department at Ordu University (n=32). Inquiry-based activities were conducted on prospective teachers for three months within the nature of the science course. Mixed research design, which uses quantitative and qualitative research methods together, was used in this study. As the quantitative data collection tool, a 36-item of scientific process skills scale, which had Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient of .70, was used as pre-test-post-test. SPSS 17 program was used for data analysis and "t-test for dependent samples" was conducted. In the qualitative part of our research, "content analysis" approach was used. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the content of interviews with prospective teachers and observation reports. It was concluded through quantitative and qualitative research analyses that inquiry-based science activities significantly increased scientific process skills of prospective science teachers positively. It is recommended that researchers who conduct studies to increase scientific process skills should use inquiry-based activities.</p> Murat Çetinkaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 56 70 A criss-cross of forces: The power relationship in the process of creating the citizenship curriculum in Taiwan <p>The citizenship curriculum used in Taiwan during the authoritarian period from 1949 to 1987 sacrificed the individual for the national interest as a tool for political socialisation. In the wake of democratisation since 1987, the curriculum has gradually been stripped of its nationalist overtones which were designed to foster ‘informed citizens’ to facilitate those in power. The increased stress on the reflective and critical capabilities of the individual reminds pupils to examine their positions and roles in society instead of mechanistically accepting the existing social structure. This article sheds light on the intricate internal-external power relationships and differing views on critical pedagogy among curriculum designers. Interviewed curriculum designers hold that pluralistic ideologies should be presented in the curriculum and then room should be left for students to deliberate or judge for themselves. As the gatekeepers tasked with deciding which information to include and being faced with the intervention of numerous internal and external forces, the Curriculum Committee sided with the critical theory and aimed to break the unreflective social reproduction.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Curriculum Studies, Citizenship Education, Critical theory, Critical Pedagogy, Curriculum Design, and Social Reproduction</p> Cheng-Yu Hung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 72 86 An investigation of uses and gratifications for using WEB 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning processes <p>Although the use of Web 2.0 in higher education has been a hot topic for the last decade, a lack of guidelines on how to use Web 2.0 tools has constrained their wider adoption. Therefore, understanding why and how educators use Web 2.0 is a necessary step towards promoting their effective use in teaching and learning. This study draws upon the uses and gratifications perspective to explore faculty members’ uses of Web 2.0 tools in instructional processes in an international higher education context. We gathered data from 15 faculty members via semi-structured interviews as part of a phenomenological study design applying maximum variation sampling. We analyzed the data using content analysis. The results indicated that the faculty members were selective in their use of Web 2.0 tools and utilized a variety of Web 2.0 tools to gratify their cognitive, affective, social integrative and personal integrative needs in relation to instructional processes.</p> Iclal Can Sevinc Gelmez-Burakgazi Ilknur Celik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 88 102 Developing instruments for student performance assessment in physics practicum: A case study of state senior high school of Magelang <p>Assessment of practicum activities has not been performed maximally in which it is limited to unstructured observations without applying assessment instruments and it only covers some skills oriented aspects. For that reason, this research aimed to develop instruments for student performance assessment in physics practicum in State Senior High School of Magelang. This research development study was based on the Borg &amp; Gall model. There were three basic steps followed; Phase 1 (problematization), Phase 2 (product creation), and Phase 3 (product testing) that consists of a limited experiment and a large group experiment. In the study, Aiken formula was used for the validation purposes and the results showed that the instrument had a high degree of content validity with the Alpha coefficient value of 0.948. Based on the Total Variance Explained table, the component column showed that there were six factors representing the variables. Accordingly, the instrument of this research was found feasible to be used for high school student performance assessment in physics practicum.</p> Silvia Lutasari Badrun Kartowagiran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 104 114 Examining studies on the factors predicting teachers' job satisfaction: A systematic review <p>This study focuses on the factors that predict teachers' job satisfaction. Twenty-seven out of 206 studies were examined based on various criteria. The studies were synthesised in accordance with systematic review methods. The studies that investigated teachers' job satisfaction and were conducted in the Turkish context were retrieved from WOS, ERIC, SCOPUS and ULAKBİM databases, and then the selected studies were analysed. In the analyses, themes and subthemes related to the predictive variables were formed. As a result, three themes that positively predicted teachers' job satisfaction were highlighted. These themes were administrators' behaviours, individual variables and organisational variables. The results showed that a strong school culture in which support, trust, justice and communication are established is a decisive factor in ensuring teachers' job satisfaction. Additionally, teachers' beliefs in their professional competence and having psychological well-being were found to be important factors for their job satisfaction.</p> Mahmut Polatcan Ramazan Cansoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 116 134 A review on writing metacognitive awareness of Turkish advanced level EFL learners <p class="BodyA" style="text-align: justify; text-indent: 14.2pt; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">The present study was undertaken to measure the metacognitive writing awareness of university-level learners. The participants of the study are 101 students of English Language and Literature, enrolled at a state university in Turkey. The grade level of the students ranges from the first grade to the fourth grade. In order to collect data, a questionnaire, developed by Farahian (2017), was used. This questionnaire measures the awareness of metacognitive writing with regard to <em>knowledge of cognition</em> and <em>knowledge of regulation</em>. Knowledge of cognition is studied under the following sub-scales: (a) declarative knowledge (person), (b) declarative knowledge (task), and (c) procedural knowledge. Knowledge of regulation was studied in terms of (a) planning and drafting, (b) general online strategies (c) monitoring and revision. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data obtained and tentative results showed that students have a moderate level of writing awareness.</span></p> Özkan Kırmızı İrfan Tosuncuoğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 136 149 A preliminary study of EFL reading android application development <p>The present study reports the results of an exploration stage of research and development (RND) whose project is to develop an EFL reading android application. At this exploration stage, this study aims at finding out the possible weaknesses of the existing EFL reading media (textbook) and the needs for an ideal EFL reading android application. 33 tenth grade senior high school students at one of the schools in central Java, Indonesia, were engaged as the participants. Both quantitative questionnaire and qualitative interview to 6 students were assigned to garner the data. This exploration revealed that some weaknesses of the textbook were comprised of monotonous colors, minimum portability, less automatic concept, limited materials, less readable instructions, limited exercises, less direct feedback of the exercises, and insufficient explanations related to EFL reading skill indicators. In turn, the needs analysis data indicated that an EFL reading android application was required to be developed. The developed product was expected to be simple and easily used, motivating and facilitating, up-to-date, providing various EFL reading activities, portable to be used inside and outside of the classroom, and controlling. The ongoing product in the form of the prototype is also presented at the end of this study report.</p> Fadel Muslaini Diah Kristina Ngadiso Ngadiso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 151 168 A comparison of student attitudes towards languages other than English (LOTEs) in Turkey and in the USA <p class="GvdeMetni1"><span lang="EN-US">The study aimed at investigating learners’ attitudes towards languages other than English (LOTEs). The study also explored participant instructors’ views on students’ attitudes towards LOTEs. In order to collect data, a language attitude questionnaire was designed by adapting Students’ Attitude Toward Foreign Language (SAFL) instrument. The study sampled a total of 316 students, 261 from Turkey, 55 from the USA. University students enrolled in a second language course in the USA and Turkey were compared in terms of their responses to SAFL items as well as their attitude scores for each of the 4 dimensions. Separate confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for each sample with 4 varimax rotated, orthogonal factors. Factor scores for each individual were computed based on the weights identified by the factor analysis to obtain general measures of motivation, students’ effort and instructor's role, self-confidence and self-interest, and students' anxiety. According to the research findings students learning LOTEs have favorable attitudes towards the language they are learning both in Turkey and the USA due to their interests in the cultural products of the countries speaking those languages and increasing educational opportunities. </span></p> Nur Akkuş Çakır Nihan Aylin Ünlü ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 170 188 An investigation of visual perception levels of pre-school children in terms of different variables <p>Pre-school ages, which is the period of rapid development of all developmental areas, is the stage in which children acquire visual perception ability and this ability acquisition process accelerates between the ages of three and seven. Visual perception that accelerates during childhood, is an important factor for academic and motor skills which are essential for school success. In this research, it is aimed to examine visual perception levels of preschool children according to various variables. The research was conducted through the survey model. The study population is consisted of children aged 5-6, who are attending preschools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in Kadıköy, Maltepe, Beşiktaş and Sarıyer districts on Anatolian and European sides of Istanbul. The sample of the study consists of 114 children aged between 5-6 years and who study in preschools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in these districts. The "Visual Perception Scale for Preschool Period" and personal information form were used to collect data for the study. Data were analyzed with Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis one-way analysis of variance. According to the results of the findings, while preschool children's visual perception levels do not differ according to the gender, age and duration of education variables; there is a significant difference in favor of high-middle socio-economic level based on the socio-economic level variable. The findings are discussed in the framework of the relevant literature.</p> Alev Onder Asude Balaban Dagal Gulsen Ilci Kusmus H.Sumeyra Bilici Hamdi Ozdemir Zeynep Kaya Deger ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 190 203 Teaching grammar is not my main responsibility”: Exploring EFL teachers’ beliefs about grammar teaching <p class="GvdeMetni1"><span lang="EN-US">This mixed-methods study investigated a hundred university EFL teachers’ beliefs about several issues in grammar teaching. Teachers’ beliefs about these issues such as the explicit and implicit teaching of grammar, its integration with other language skills, and the role of a teacher in grammar teaching were elicited by means of a questionnaire. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten volunteer teachers to obtain more in-depth information about teachers’ reported beliefs. These results were analyzed by using the descriptive statistics and in-vivo coding. The findings of the study demonstrated that most teachers believed in the centrality of grammar instruction to helping language learners attain a substantial proficiency in English. Moreover, it was found that most teachers favored an inductive, integrative and communicative approach to grammar teaching. Although teachers’ reported beliefs were, overall, in harmony with the literature on grammar teaching, there were no hints suggesting that teachers were aware of grammar theories or their beliefs were based on SLA/grammar literature. The findings indicated that the distinction between pedagogical dichotomies proposed in the literature seemed to blur in the practice since teachers frequently referred to personal and contextual features as the main factors shaping their beliefs and practices. </span></p> Tuğba Elif Toprak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 205 221 Towards a continuum from know-how to show-how for developing EFL student-teachers’ assessment literacy <p>It mushrooms as an unerring fact that that assessment literacy has been a focus of interest as one of the major professional requirements of a teacher. Correlatively, there are some manifold standards for assessment and measures for assessment literacy. This study, hereat, aims to unearth the prospective English as a Foreign Language (henceforth EFL) teachers’ levels of assessment literacy. In this context, the Assessment Literacy Survey developed by Volante and Fazio (2007) together with the student questionnaire of the European Network of Language Testing and Assessment (ENLTA) which was developed in 2004 are exploited to collect data. The participants are thirty-six senior students from the department of English Language Teaching (henceforth ELT) at a state university in Turkey. Fundamentally, the pre-service teachers’ utilization of the assessment approaches, and their understanding of underlying principles are at the major axis. As a result, it is reported that prospective EFL teachers are aware of the concept of assessment literacy though they perceive themselves as not adequately qualified. At the very same, practicum courses in which they enroll do not satisfactorily meet their expectations in developing their assessment skills. Similarly, they have a judicious amount of practical knowledge on different types of assessment approaches although they are mindful of the fact that in-class practices are to be laced with various kinds of assessment applications. Some practical recommendations and implications for teacher education are also listed in tow.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nurdan Kavaklı Sezen Arslan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 223 232 EPOSTL: Revisiting the roles of language teachers at a recently established ELT department. <p class="GvdeMetni1"><span lang="EN-US">The present study investigated the self-perceptions of student teachers on the role of language teachers stated in the EPOSTL at a recently established ELT department in a public university. The descriptors in the Role of the Language Teacher part of the EPOSTL were adapted into five-point Likert-type items changing from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The quantitative inquiry was employed to the data through computer software. The first research question was answered through percentages (%) and frequencies (f); the other two research questions were answered through Independent-Samples T-Test by comparing the means (X̄) and standard deviations (SD). The results were reported descriptively at the end. According to the results, some of the student teachers of ELT had difficulty in relating theory and practice, giving constructive feedback and accepting feedback, conducting action researches to solve classroom problems, and following the scientific documents in language teaching. Based on the results, several pedagogical implications that can be implemented for the forthcoming ELT classes at the department were suggested.</span></p> Erkan Yüce ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 6 1 234 243