International Online Journal of Education and Teaching http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET <p><img src="/public/site/images/esoykan/homepageImage_en_USa3.png" width="364" height="171"></p> <p><strong>Period:</strong> 4 Issue / Year</p> <p><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;</strong>2148-225X</p> <h3>About the Journal&nbsp; &nbsp;</h3> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;aims to set up a highly qualified international academic platform for both experienced and novice education professionals, researchers, librarians in academic, corporate, and government work settings; and those involved in education and teaching practices all over the world.</p> <p>The purpose of the&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;is to foster critical debate about education and teaching globally. The&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;seeks both to develop new theoretical insights into the education and teaching,&nbsp;and new understandings of the extent and nature of contemporary educational practices in diverse settings. It underlines the significance of discovering and reflecting the interplay of local, regional, national and global contexts and dynamics in shaping educational and teaching strategies and policies internationally.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET&nbsp;</em>is concerned with education in its broadest sense, including formal, informal and non-formal modes, as well as cognitive and metacognitive skills development.&nbsp;<em>IOJET</em>&nbsp;is primarily interested in studies that look at the relationship between education and teaching in different contexts globally.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>IOJET&nbsp;</em>welcomes papers from all prospective authors and especially from scholars who study education and teaching both theoretically and in practice all over the world.&nbsp;</p> Informascope Information Technologies, Trade, Publishing LTD. CO. en-US International Online Journal of Education and Teaching 2148-225X Copyright by Informascope . Material published and so copyrighted may not be published elsewhere without the written permission of IOJET. No manuscript will be considered which has already been published or is being considered by another journal. ENGAGING DIVERSE YOUTH IN EXPERIENTIAL STEM LEARNING: A UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT PARTNERSHIP http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/505 <p>This paper presents the results of a partnership between a New Jersey school district and four-year university seeking to enhance STEM programming for the district’s diverse student population. The project utilized a STEM-focused experiential unit integrated into existing ninth grade school non-science classes (social studies and career readiness courses). A quasi-experimental double pre- and post-test design was used to gauge feeling towards and interest in STEM study among the diverse sample population over a two- year period. Data from Year One was used to refine and adjust the Year Two structure. Results offer credence to the use of focused STEM units with general population students to influence interest in science and STEM-related careers. The experiential component of the unit was most well-received with students supporting its integration into a non-science classroom.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> STEM, robotics, diverse, experiential learning</p> Norma Boakes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 245 258 EXAMINING THE EXAMPLE GENERATION ABILITIES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF MATHEMATICS COURSE http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/581 <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Examples are an indispensable part of mathematical thinking through analogy, learning and the teaching process. In this study, the strategies that high school students used in example generation activities in mathematics course; operational and conceptual knowledge levels were determined and their effect on example generation ability was examined. The working group of the study was designed as a case study that followed a qualitative research method; the study consisted of 22 students attending high school in the 2016-2017 academic year. As a data collection tool, example generation questions were administered to the students. To analyze students' example generation processes in depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted and data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using a content analysis method. The results showed that the students used trial and error strategy more than transformation strategy while generating examples but no finding of analysis strategy was obtained. Factors affecting the students' example generation skills negatively included the lack of a mathematical equivalent of the concept images related to the topics covered by the questions and their not having a high enough level of concept knowledge. Results also indicated that conceptual knowledge had a positive effect on the ability to generate examples.</p> <p>Keywords: example generation, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge</p> </div> </div> </div> Mert Yüce Şenol Dost ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-05 2019-04-05 6 2 260 279 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND TERTIARY LEVEL ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS’ ACHIEVEMENT http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/590 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between student engagement and achievement. The study sample was composed of 296 at Ufuk University in Ankara, Turkey. The participants were enrolled in the intensive English language program of the foreign language Preparatory School of the institution. Data collection was carried out with the Mazer’s (2012) Student Engagement Scale, which was adapted to Turkish by Uğur and Akın (2015). Students’ English achievement was measured by their mid-term exam results. Statistical analysis revealed participants to be more engaged in silent in class behaviors followed by out of class behaviors, thinking about course content, and out-of-class behaviors. Moreover, it was found that participants had low engagement levels in oral in class behaviors. All types of engagement had a positive correlation with mid-term exam scores. Among all types of engagement behaviors, oral in class behaviors was the only predictor of students’ exam scores.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> student engagement, achievement, foreign language learning</p> Ceyhun Karabıyık ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-05 2019-04-05 6 2 281 293 A NEW APPROACH IN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE PERCEPTIONS OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS RELATED TO FLIPPED LEARNING http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/586 <p>The purpose of this study was to develop and implement flipped learning materials in the Principles and Methods of Instruction course and investigate the perceptions of pre-service teachers about flipped learning. This study was conducted in the fall semester of 2017-2018 for 11 weeks at a public university located in the Aegean Region in Turkey. This study employed a mixed method research design. There were 30 pre-service teachers in the flipped learning group. In the current study, student questionnaire and interview schedule were implemented. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical analysis techniques. For the analysis of the data, SPSS 22.0 was used and alpha level was determined as .05. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed by using both the content and descriptive analysis techniques. The findings of the study showed that pre-service teachers mostly had positive perceptions about flipped learning processes and materials. They agreed that flipped learning supported and facilitated learning was effective in order to practice theoretical knowledge and contributed to personal development and self-enhancement. Their perceptions were examined and discussed in detail.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> Flipped learning, pre-service teacher education, videos</p> Melike Ozudogru Meral Aksu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-05 2019-04-05 6 2 295 316 A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT IN TERMS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/609 <p>The objective of this research is to analyse high school students’ positive and negative affect schedules and to compare them regarding whether they change according to gender, level of class and type of school. 171 voluntary students of grade 11 and 12 studying in these schools represent the sample of the research. Positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) was used in the research. It has been observed that positive affect schedule is considerably high between female and male, while the negative affect schedule of both female and male students is slightly low. However the positive affect scores of male students are higher than females, while the negative affect scores of the male students negative affects are lower than females. There is a meaningful significance of affects between&nbsp; in terms of gender. Also, the scores of negative affects of students of both 11th grade and general high school vary according to gender.</p> Serap Özbaş Yağmur Çerkez Sılay Bağlama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 318 325 NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ABOUT USING TURKISH (L1) IN EFL CLASSROOMS: A CASE STUDY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/614 <p>This study investigated 5 non-native English teachers’ perceptions on Turkish (L1) use in English language (L2) classrooms in the English Preparatory School context of European University of Lefke in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC).&nbsp; The participants were interviewed by using a semi-structured interview and observed by administering a predetermined observation checklist.&nbsp; Gathered data were analyzed to explore the participants’ beliefs and classroom practices regarding the necessity of using L1. The participant non-native English teachers’ views &nbsp;&nbsp;regarding the reasons of using Turkish (L1) were also explored. The results of the &nbsp;study revealed that the teachers had neutral perceptions about benefiting from Turkish (L1) in their foreign language classes and underscored a place for Turkish (L1) in English (L2) classrooms.&nbsp; In other words, the majority of the participants did not reject Turkish use; however, due to some restrictions such as English medium education system in the teachers' workplace, nationality factors, and teachers' own teaching philosophy brought some different dimensions to this process.&nbsp; Overall, the majority of the teachers supported the use of Turkish whereas only one teacher had the opposite view emphasizing that students can become dependent on L1 help which has a high possibility of inhibiting learners from target language acquisition.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>Teachers’ perceptions, L1 use, L2 maximization</p> Sibel Ersel kaymakamoğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 327 337 THOUGHTS ON LEARNER AUTONOMY IN A COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING PROGRAM http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/490 <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In our institution, Quartet (computer software program) was a part of the curriculum which provides the students with the opportunity to work on their own in order to develop their language skills. To what extent the learners benefit from the materials and the time provided for them mainly depends on students since as Dakin suggests (1973) “though the teacher may control the experiences the learner is exposed to, it is the learner who selects what is learnt from them” (p. 16). According to the observations of teachers, some, but not all students worked effectively in lab lessons. This paper aims to identify the students’ perceptions about themselves, the teacher, their peers and language learning to have an idea of their autonomy and their thoughts on computer assisted language learning. Data were gathered through a 46- item questionnaire. Frequency tests were used to determine the frequencies and percentages of each item to find out the perceptions of participants on learner autonomy and the usefulness of computer lab lessons. Though the students shoulder the responsibility of learning, most students need guidance of their teachers to set goals for their learning process.</p> <p>Keywords: learner autonomy, computer assisted language learning</p> </div> </div> </div> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Nuray Okumuş Ceylan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 339 354 THE INNOVATIVE GROUP LEARNING DESIGN: INSTRUCTIONAL GROUP ACTIVITIES http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/507 <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The Instructional Group Activities Design (IGAD) refers to activities which aim to improve professional development and learning skills, in which a learning-centered teaching process is adopted and students study in small groups. The study aimed to both introduce the IGAD and determine pre-service science teachers’ opinions on IGAs that were performed during the practice hours of the course “Special Teaching Methods I.” In line with this aim, opinions of 56 pre-service science teachers on the practices were received. An opinion form, which includes open and close-ended questions, was used as a data collection tool. According to the results of the study, pre-service science teachers stated that the practice mostly contributed to their professional and social development areas. Regarding the negative aspects of the practices, pre-service science teachers underlined that they had difficulty regarding time and experienced certain group problems. Based on these findings, positive and negative aspects of the instructional group activities design for teacher training were discussed, and some recommendations were presented.</p> <p>Keywords: instructional group activities, teacher training, group learning design, science education</p> </div> </div> </div> Fatma Sasmaz Oren ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 356 377 AN INVESTIGATION INTO TURKISH EFL LEARNERS’ STEREOTYPED THOUGHTS AND EXPOSURE TO ENGLISH: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/540 <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This study aims to investigate tertiary EFL learners’ stereotyped thoughts about foreign languages, the extent of their exposure to English, and the potential relationships between these variables, also in relation to their proficiency level. 124 EFL students in the preparatory school of a state university in Turkey participated in the study. Two quantitative data collection instruments were distributed to the participants: Stereotyped Thoughts About Foreign Languages Scale (Ünal, 2015) and Exposure to English Scale (Gökcan &amp; Çobanoğlu-Aktan, 2016). Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the participants held a moderate level of stereotyped thoughts and exposure to English. Moreover, significant and positive relationships were revealed between L2 exposure and (1) proficiency level and (2) the two dimensions of stereotyped thoughts: collectivity at a weak level and trying to change people at a moderate level. However, L2 exposure correlated significantly and negatively with taking it personally and exaggerated generalization at a weak level. Concerning the relationships between proficiency level and the dimensions of stereotyping, the “Must” rule, taking it personally and excessively self-sacrificing showed significant and negative relationships with proficiency level weakly, while exaggerated generalization correlated with proficiency at a moderate level.</p> <p>Keywords: L2 exposure, stereotypes, foreign languages, attitudes</p> </div> </div> </div> Hatice Okyar Yusuf Demir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 379 391 THE EFFECT OF THE SKYPE TM CONFERENCE CALL ON ENGLISH SPEAKING ANXIETY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/559 <p>As a result of the globalized world, technology has become the center of our lives and changes a lot of things such as our education and communication.&nbsp; Educational institutions have started to use some online communication platforms such as Skype<sup> TM</sup> while teaching a second language. This research examines the effect of Skype <sup>TM</sup> on foreign language learners’ speaking anxiety levels and tries to find out the differences in foreign language speaking anxiety levels between the traditional speaking lesson and the Skype <sup>TM </sup>Conference Call lesson. Twenty-one B1-B2 level adult English language learners participated in this study and a true experimental research design was used. The data were analyzed by paired samples t-test analysis of pre- and post-tests of participants. The results indicated that Skype <sup>TM</sup> had an impact on foreign language learners’ speaking anxiety because it reduced the anxiety levels of learners in the experimental group.</p> Nermin Punar Levent Uzun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 393 403 IMPACTS OF JIGSAW AND TEAMS-GAMES-TOURNAMENTS (TGT) ON SOCIAL STUDIES PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/524 <p>Classroom practices of teachers are affected by their personal epistemological beliefs and cooperative learning methods are taking a large place in today’s education world. By implementing two different cooperative learning methods in a college of education course, this study examined the effects of jigsaw and teams games tournaments (TGT) on epistemological beliefs of social studies preservice teachers. 30 students participated in the research who attended 4<sup>th</sup> grade at Artvin Coruh University Social Studies Education department at 2015-2016 academic year. Data were collected with Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire and analyzed by independent groups t-test. The findings elicited that jigsaw is significantly more effective that TGT on social studies preservice teachers’ epistemological beliefs in general and for two of the dimensions measured: “the belief that learning depends on effort”, and "the belief that learning depends on ability". But for the dimension, "the belief that there is only one unchanging truth", there was no significant differences between two methods.</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> cooperative learning, jigsaw, TGT, epistemological beliefs, teacher education.</p> Ufuk Şimşek Aşkın Baydar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 405 414 A SWOT ANALYSIS OF TEACHER-PARENT COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATION: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/574 <p>This study was designed to explore strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats driven by teacher-parent communication (TPC, henceforth) from the perspectives of teachers and students based on teacher views. A phenomenological design was adopted in the study of which sampling was constituted by 10 Turkish teachers of different subject areas working at state middle schools. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews with these teachers and examined through content analysis. Based on the preliminary findings, the teachers believe that TPC has certain strengths such as enhancement of students' feeling of worthiness and their sense of belonging to the school, and improvement of their motivation and in-class performance, and facilitation of the learning process. The teachers also reported that it helps students develop a sense of responsibility and improve self-confidence, and reduce student misbehaviors. As for the TPC-driven strengths from teachers' perspective, they stated that it facilitates recognition of students from different angles, makes positive contributions to the learning process, improves teacher status and prestige, and reduces teachers' workload through collaboration with parents. The study discusses strengths, weaknesses, possible threats and opportunities of TPC in detail.</p> <p><em>Keywords: </em>teacher-parent communication, school success, SWOT analysis</p> Serkan Ünsal Reyhan Ağçam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 6 2 416 430