Fatma Zehra Özkahya


Language learners’ beliefs about second language learning interact with their awareness, consciousness, attitude towards learning, strategy choices and motivations (Buyukyazi, 2010). Delving into learners’ beliefs provides an insightful view of learners’ perceptions and actions about their education, which also helps teachers to shape the language learning process with changing or adapting the methods and materials thereby reshaping the negative preconceptions of the learners about English language. To see the effect of the learners’ gender and language proficiency levels, 43 university level students contributed to the study. The data were collected with a 34-item Likert Scale called as The Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) developed by Horwitz. The data analysis revealed that while learners’ gender has no significant effect on the learners’ belief, their proficiency levels affect their beliefs about the nature of the language, foreign language aptitude, motivations and expectations from their second language learning procedures.

Keywords: language learner’s belief; attitude; aptitude; preconception

Full Text:



Agudo, J. D. M. (2014). Analysing Spanish learners’ beliefs about EFL learning. Porta Linguarum, 22, 285-301.

Altan, M. Z. (2006). Beliefs about language earning of foreign language-major university students. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 31(2), 45-52.

Ariogul, S., Unal, D.C., & Onursal, I. (2009). Foreign language learners' beliefs about language learning: A study on Turkish university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1500-1506.

Bernat, E. (2004). Investigating Vietnamese ESL learners' beliefs about language learning. English Australia Journal, 21(2), 40-54.

Bernat, E. (2006). Assessing EAP learners’ beliefs about language learning in the Australian context. Asian EFL Journal, 8(2), 202-227.

Bernat, E., & Lloyd, R. (2007). Exploring the gender effect on EFL learners' beliefs about language learning.

Buyukyazi, M. (2010). The beliefs of university foreign language students and their teachers about language learning. Sosyal Bilimler, 8(1), 169-182.

Cephe, P. T., & Yalcin, C. G. (2015). Beliefs about foreign language learning: The effects of teacher beliefs on learner beliefs. Anthropologist, 19(1), 167-173.

Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.

Horwitz, E. K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals,18(4), 333-340.

Horwitz, E. K. (1987). Surveying student beliefs about language learning. Learner strategies in language learning, 119-129.

Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. The Modern Language Journal, 72(3), 283-294.

Horwitz, E. K. (1999). Cultural and situational influences on foreign language learners' beliefs about language learning: A review of BALLI studies. System, 27(4), 557-576.

Huang, S. C., & Tsai, R. R. (2003). A Comparison between High and Low English Proficiency Learners' Beliefs.

Kern, R.G. (1995). Students' and teachers' beliefs about language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 28, 71-92.

Kuntz, P.S. (1996). Students of "easy" languages: Their beliefs about language learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED397658).

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2013). How languages are learned. 4th edition. Oxford University Press.

Mantle-Bromley, C. (1995). Positive attitudes and realistic beliefs: Links to proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 79(3), 372-386.

Ozmen, K.S. (2012). Exploring student teachers’ beliefs about language learning and teaching: A longitudinal study. Current Issues in Education, 15(1), 1-16.

Pajares, M.F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-333.

Peacock, M. (1999). Beliefs about language learning and their relationship to proficiency. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 247-265.

Peacock, M. (2001). Pre-service ESL teachers’ beliefs about second language learning: A longitudinal study. System, 29(2), 177-195.

Peacock, M. (1998). Exploring the gap between teachers' and learners' beliefs about ‘useful’ activities for EFL. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(2), 233-248.

Sakui, K., & Gaies, S.J. (1999). Investigating Japanese learners' beliefs about language learning. System, 27, 473-492.

Siebert, L. (2003). Student and teacher beliefs about language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 33(4), 394-420.

Tercanlioglu, L. (2005). Pre-service EFL teachers’ beliefs about foreign language learning and how they relate to gender. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 5-3(1), 145-162.

Tillema, H.H. (2000). Belief change toward self-directed learning in student teachers: Immersion in practice or reflection on action. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 576-591.

Truitt, S.N. (1995). Anxiety and beliefs about language learning: A study of Korean University students learning English (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Austin: The University of Texas at Austin.

Wesely, M.P. (2012). Learner attitudes, perceptions and beliefs in language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 45(1): 98-117.

Williams, M. D. & Burden, R. L (1997). Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, M., Mercer, S.& Ryan, S. (2015). Exploring psychology in language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wong, M. S. (2010). Beliefs about language learning: A study of Malaysian pre-service teachers. RELC Journal, 41(2), 123-136.

Yang, N. D. (1992). Second Language Learners: Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Use of Learning Strategies; a Study of College Students of English in Taiwan.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Prof. Dr. İsmail Hakkı Mirici
Editor in Chief 

Near East University
Ataturk Faculty of Education

Near East Boulevard, 99138
Nicosia, TRNC
Mersin 10 - Turkey

E-mail: hakkimirici@gmail.com